phone (crude/simplicstic) proto-declarative – pointing? – u know the other person knows what that means? Mom I need you to call me back – declaring something aboutyourself o may use instrumental but not expressive gestures o about 50% of children with autism do not develop any useful language o metalingustics really important – irony, sarcasm, teasing o pragmatics : taking turn, checking in with partner o Article – importance of understanding social context and playful behavior during teasing – teasing of those with autism was less playful and provocative and focused less on social norms than that of comparison children Intellectual deficits and strengths o 50% of children with autism have coocrring intellectual impairment o 25% have splinter skills or islets of ability (identifiable strengths) o small minority (Savants) display isolated and remarkable talents higher functioning autistics can eventually learn theory of mind but still fail second order false belief tasks 3-4 times more common in boys but when girls are affected they tend to have more severe intellectual impairments right before 2 nd birthday parents noticed, diagnosis made in preschool or later reliable detection at 12-18 months usually gets better with age but some symptoms may get worse in adolescence complex OCD may develop in late adolescence and adulthood IQ and language development are best predictors of adult outcomes Causes – sometimes problems during pregnancy, at birth or imeediately after birth, fragile X common cause
3-7% of extended family memberes of individuals with autism have the disorder 60-90% in identical twins; h=.80 of underlying autism liability broader autism traits Substance – very dimensional now abuse – interferew with ability to function but no physiological dependence dependence – involved tolerance or withdrawal DSM 5 need two of the 11 – o 1 more than intended, 2 desire to stop, 3 time, 4 craving, 5 obligations, 6 social or interpersonal, 7 giving up activities, 8 physicalla hazardous, 9 ohysical or psychological problem still uses, 10 tolerance, 11 withdrawal o mild – 2-3 moderate 4-5 and severe 6 or more symptoms o each drug listed as separate disorder but diagnostic criteria same 12% adolescents meet criteria for substance abuse or dependence peak in late adolescence then decline during young adulthood girls who report dating aggression are 5x more likely to use alcohol than girl sin nonviolent relationships; boys are 2.5x more likely Personality Characteristics o Increased sensation seeking preference for novel, complex and ambiguous stimuli o Positive attitudes about it – alcohol expectancies o Perceiving oneself to be physically older than same-age peers and striving for adult social roles Adolescent drug use and psychological health article o 101 18 year olds initially recruited at 3 years old and assessed at all ages o abstainers, experimenters and frequent users personality differences o frequent users at age 7 compared to experimenters – little concern for
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