C put burdens on party most likely to have access to

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c. Put burdens on party most likely to have access to the necessary proof. d. Help resolves cases where definitive proof is unavailable, e.g. missing 7 years  presumed dead. 5. Presumptions - a device that requires the trier of fact to draw particular conclusion when the basic facts are established in the absence of counterproof. a. Types i. Irrebuttable presumptions - Substantive law.  Misnomer ii. Mandatory presumptions - Presumption controls if unopposed, i.e. rebuttable  presumptions. iii. Permissive presumptions - Presumption permitted but not required. b. Uses in situations i. One-sided situations - If make out basic facts which are unopposed, presumption  controls. ii. Contingent situation - If do not make out basic facts, trier of fact is conditioned.   If trier of fact finds the basic facts, it must then find the presumed fact.  Prob. 10- A (p.758). c. Inbetween Situations i. One side makes out basic facts but there is counterproof. ii. Traditional/Thayer approach - shift burden of production but not burden of  persuasion.  If meet burden of persuasion, presumption drops out. Rule 301 - In civil actions, burden of production shifts but not the burden of  persuasion. See also Burdine  (p.767) iii. Morgan/Radical approach - shift both burden of persuasion and burden of proof.  An example of this would be Price Waterhouse  (p. 774, n.2) d. Rule 302 - state law controls effect of presumptions in diversity cases. B. CRIMINAL CASES 37
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1. Prosecutor must prove every element of crime beyond a reasonable doubt and cannot  shift burden of persuasion for any element of crime to D through presumption.   Mullaney .  5th and 14th Amendments. 2. Can put burden of D to prove affirmative defense as long as it is not disproving any  element of crime.  Patterson v. New York  (p.782).  Jury instruction was if D proved by  preponderance of evidence that D acted with extreme emotional distress, D guilty of  manslaughter instead of murder.  This is allowed b/c State already proved all elements  beyond a reasonable doubt.  State should not have to prove "not X" or that D was not  acting with extreme emotional distress, to succeed.  Gives states more freedom to  legislate. a. Problem - this allows legislature to decide what kind of burden it wants to put on D  and what type of affirmative defenses are allowed.  With careful drafting, makes it  harder for D and easier for state to prove case.
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