Are often unsure about how to identify and act upon

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are often unsure about how to identify and act upon growth opportunities, and may have even set up systems and structures that actively work against new value creation. A small number of companies and organizations are beginning to accept design (design thinking, design management, design methods and practice) as a way to address the gaps in the marketplace and, more interestingly, to address functional challenges inside the organization. And although there is no question that design helps organizations create value externally in the marketplace, there are some interesting possibilities to explore about the way that design can add value to organizations internally. In their critique of contemporary management education, David Newkirk and Edward Freeman (2008) posit that business is a fundamentally human institution where we create value for each other by cooperating, trading, and specializing our labour. They assert, however, that the scientific view of management makes it difficult to incorporate the human spirit. It leaves little room for ethics, or for other fundamentally human considerations such as creativity, trust, initiative, and will (Newkirk and Freeman 2008: 141). This perspective on the shortcomings of management science illustrates design s potential for offering organizations an improved method for value creation. Design s essentially humanistic agenda is precisely what makes it such a powerful dialectical tool for enriching organizational life. Design is fundamentally about value creation. In the business world, the design of products, services, processes and systems can unlock new markets, drive new revenue and keep an organization running efficiently. Design can launch a new company, or it can renew and sustain an existing one. The aspect of design that has been far less explored and tested is what I will call the intrinsic value of design. Intrinsic value includes the many influences and outcomes that result from engaging customers, employees, and organizational dynamics in the design process. In other words, it is value inherent in the means, rather than the ends. Such values include social cohesion, ideological coherence, and strategic alignment that emerge from participation in design activities. Designers are not unfamiliar with these intrinsic benefits, but rarely are they the primary driver for design engagements with client organizations. Furthermore, value generated intrinsically is far more difficult to track and measure, and so it is often hidden or overlooked. Key to capturing the intrinsic side of the equation, however, is to understand design as a set of activities: methods, approaches, and techniques that provide its practitioners with a way of working together in a highly productive way. Furthermore, we must see design not as one specific set of activities, but as a malleable set of practices that include hallmarks such as collaboration, visualization, experimentation, ideation, and iteration.
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