A short trial course of oral corticosteroids may be

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symptoms. A short trial course of oral corticosteroids may be prescribed for patients with stage II or III COPD to see if pulmonary function improves and symptoms decrease. Other Medications – Patients should receive a yearly influenza vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine every 5 to 7 years as preventive measured. Oxygen Therapy – It can be administered as long term continuous therapy, during exercise, or to prevent acute dyspnea. Long term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve the patient’s quality of life and survival. Nursing Management: Patient Education – is a major component of pulmonary rehabilitation and includes a broad variety of topics. Depending on the length and setting of the program, topics may include normal anatomy and physiology of the lung, pathophysiology and changes with COPD, medications and home oxygen therapy, nutrition, respiratory therapy treatments, symptom alleviation, smoking cessation, sexuality and COPD, coping with chronic disease, communicating with the health care team, and planning for the future. Breathing Exercise – The breathing pattern of most people with COPD is shallow, rapid, and inefficient; the more severe the disease, the more inefficient the breathing pattern. With practice, this type of upper chest breathing can be changed to diaphragmatic breathing, which reduces the respiratory rate, increases alveolar ventilation, and sometimes helps expel as much air as possible during expiration. Pursed lip breathing helps to slow expiration, prevents collapse of small airways, and helps to slow expiration, prevents collapse of small airways, and helps the patient to control the rate and depth of respiration. It also promotes relaxation, enabling the patient to gain control of dyspnea and reduce feelings of panic.
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