Iii 3 valence desirability of the outcomes available

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iii. (3) Valence : desirability of the outcomes available; is the goal or outcome worthwhile to you? How desirable is it? 2. Theory of Learned Needs – says different people are motivated by different issues, and managers must create goals to account for and motivate all of these different types. a. Achievement : the desire to excel; usually likes situations of moderate risk, prefers to work alone or only with other high achievers; desire challenge and feedback b. Power : desire to influence and control others, to persuade and prevail. Concerned with winning arguments c. Affiliation : desire to be liked; desire a sense of belonging and certainty; concerned with interpersonal relationships; enjoys teamwork 3. Equity Theory— focuses on people’s perceptions of fairness of outcomes in proportion to inputs Relative Theory : looks at one worker relative to everyone else; people who work X times harder deserve the same proportion greater in outcomes (such as income) relative to the other worker ( “referent” ). Three conditions then exist: o Equity: Outcomes Worker /Inputs Worker = Outcomes Referant /Inputs Referant o Underpayment Equity: Outcomes Worker /Inputs Worker < Outcomes Referant /Inputs Referant o Overpayment Equity: Outcomes Worker /Inputs Worker > Outcomes Referant /Inputs Referant Inequity increases tensions; workers will attempt to restore equity; if Underpayment: worker may reduce inputs (effort) or seek a raise; if Overpayment: worker may change the referent person or readjust their ratio perception Implications for Motivating Employees o For those in need of Achievement: non-routine, challenging tasks with clear goals; prompt and frequent feedback; increasing responsibility o For those in need of Power: allow them to control and plan their work; give them responsibility for the whole task; allow them influence in decision-making o For those in need of Affiliation: include them in team and collaborative efforts; provide them more support and recognition o Consider other course concepts: set specific, challenging goals (lecture); reward employees properly Lecture 10: Informal Organization: Culture and Socialization The Informal Organization in N/T model consists of implicit, assumed, and unwritten aspects of the organization such as culture, norms, values, power, group dynamics, and communication patterns. Schein says Organizational Culture is a pattern of basic assumptions, values, beliefs, and behaviors. This pattern is “taken for granted” in the organization and is taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel. “Strong” cultures are well known because there’s a visible pattern. 14
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Culture as an Iceberg: A strong culture may affect how people feel and act in the organization, the types of employees hired and retained, the company’s ability to adapt to changes in the external environment (ex. if there’s a culture of innovation), or it may even give the company a competitive advantage. Two Forces that Drive Homogeneity : 1. Bottom-Up Forces “The people make the place.” Involves the process of attraction, selection, attrition, The ASA Model by Schneider : says hired people don’t need training to fit into the culture because they’re chosen based on the values, beliefs, and attitudes they share with the firm/organization: o
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