Continuous observation was done from 0710 hours to 0725 hours the entire

Continuous observation was done from 0710 hours to

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Continuous observation was done from 0710 hours to 0725 hours (the entire duration of USSR). So as to prevent a Hawthorne Effect (i.e., behavior that might have changed as a result of the participants knowing they are being observed; see Mackey & Gass, 2005, p.187), the researcher observed the conduct of the USSR program as a participant-observer. The four elements in Bruyn’s (1966) phenomenological approach are thus utilized: awareness of time, physical environment, contrasting experiences, and social openings and barriers. Since the researcher was a member of the teaching staff and a colleague of the participants, his presence was unlikely to have caused any discomfort to the participants. As such, the observation was unobtrusive. Observation of the number of teachers who were modeling the activity of reading was done at a 5-minute interval. Hence, there were 4 observations (at 0710, 0715, 0720, & 0725 hours) daily. At each observation, the researcher did a count through a circular visual sweep of the courtyard, starting and ending at the position of the elevated platform. Two sweeps were done at every observation to verify the numbers noted. To ensure reliability of the observation, an observation template was used (see Appendix B). Questionnaire Procedure The questionnaire (Appendix C) was given personally to the teachers in the staff room by the researcher. The questionnaire was given individually so as to prevent any discussion or comparison of answers, and to avert any type of peer influence or conformity. Thirty-eight teachers completed and handed in their questionnaire surveys within 5 minutes. Seven teachers handed in within the hour and five teachers handed in the following day. All the teachers were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. There was a 100% response. Semi-Structured Interview Procedure The interviews (Appendix D) with the teachers were conducted in the Staff Lounge, which is seldom used. It offers quiet and solitude—away from the classrooms and the Staff Common Room. All the interviews were tape recorded and later transcribed. The interviews were conducted after all the observations were completed. This was done to prevent the Hawthorne effect of the teachers deliberately and consciously modeling reading during USSR if they were to find out the intent of the research while the observations were going on. Each interview took about 12–15 minutes. By using a semi-structured interview format, answers to the interview questions could be probed. A deeper understanding of the answers and how the answers came to be realized was thus achieved. Furthermore, such a format could also clarify any misunderstanding and confusion the interviewees might have (Babbie, 2005). Finally, observation of the interviewees’ body language during the interviews can be an asset in the analysis of their responses.
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