Pneumonia common causes viruses and bacteria virus

This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 22 pages.

Pneumonia: common causes: viruses and bacteria Virus – self limiting CAP: Strepneumoniae, H Influenza, Legionella, mycobacterium Staph, Methicillin resistant, pseudomonas, Klebsiella -- HAPPulmonary Hypertension: Thromboxane A2 (Vasoconstriction), Nitric Oxide (vasodilator)- high vascular resistance in pulmonary Strain on right ventricle – SOB< clear lungs< edema, hepatomegaly, ascites COPD and Asthma: what are the differencesAsthma: reversible, change in FEV1/FEV 2 – obesity, smoking use COPD: irreversible, genetic Alpha trypsin, elastin D-dimer (breakdown of crosslink fibrinogen that coats the clot) and Pulmonary Embolus: two fibrinogen fragments cross-linked – low Wells Score High Wells score – get a CT scan COPD genetics, alpha-trypsin, and elastin, Asthma, reversibility and decrease in FEV1, genetic, smoking, obesity – all inclusive PainTissue injury leading to a release of proinflammatory mediators – role PGE2 & I2, bradykinin, histamineinteract with pain receptors, depolarize release excitatory NT, substance P: propagate message of pain toCNS PerceptionThermal nociceptorsHeat – sense temperature Mechanical nociceptorsExternal Pressure/injuryChemical nociceptors = Substances – e.g. capsaicin (spicy/hot ingredient in pepper)PainSignal transmissionAlpha-delta fibersMyelinated – transmits signals faster C fibersNo myelinated – slower Types*AcuteProtective; step on hot coal – acute pain take had off – seconds to 3 months SomaticSuperficial – slicing your hand – well localizedVisceralDeeper – internal organ, more poorly localized– problem internallyReferred pain: something wrong in one place, pain felt in another – enlarged spleen cause left shoulder pain; gall bladder – right shoulder pain
MononeuropathyOne nerve – gets pinched E.g. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – Phalen sign inverted prayer signPolyneuropathy*Many nerves – glucose residue bindingE.g. Diabetic neuropathy: elevated BG levels uncontrolled remain elevated – glucose floating around run and binds to nerve proteins and alters function activate enzymes vasoconstriction & oxidative stress – reactive species damage nerves – nerve pain – use Gabapentin Trouble with balance, decrease ability to identify pain: decrease sensation in feet, hands damagefiner vessels and nerves first Mononeuritis multiplexNoncontiguous nerves affected, asymmetrical; pattern of development: asymmetrical – nerves affected that are not in the same pathway E.g. MS, Lyme disease, Wegner’s granulomatosis– antibodies activate neutrophils that adhere to epithelial cell lining Alzheimer’sProgressive onset – insidious Amyloid, neurofibrillary tangles – protein mis-folding – amyloid precursor protein broken down into smaller amyloid and form tangles in Tau proteins in frontal cortex: changes in executive function, memory, emotion – cingulate gyrus affectedLewy BodyRapid onsetVisual hallucinations (not seen in Alzheimers)REM sleep disturbanceAlpha-synuclein proteins – clumped upParkinsonsDegenerative diseaseCell death of

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture