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However, because school value verbal ability and use middle-class speech patterns (by eliciting opinions from students using Socratic teaching methods), students accustomed to this verbal style generally enjoy advantages in school. When researchers controlled for SES, many of the black-white educational gaps are significantly narrowed; such findings attest to the importance of class differences in racial educational outcomes.A related psychological process that might contribute to black underachievement, particularly in high-stakes testing situations, is stereotype threat, which occurs when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear that they may confirm those stereotypes. Resource dilution model:hypothesis stating that parental resources are finite and that each additional child dilutes them.
The idea behind the voucher movement is that for school to be equal, students should be able to choose where they want to go to school, regardless of whether they can pay for it. To make this ideology a reality, school choice proponents endorse the use of vouchers, coupons administered by the government that may be redeemed at any school, private or public. Students take the dollar amount of whatever their public school would have spent on their education and apply it toward the tuition at another school.