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Study Guide Exam II

Claims green challenge could be economically

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Claims green challenge could be economically stimulating Steady-State Economics (Daly) The economy is a subsystem of the earths ecosystem, open subsystem The economy as a subsystem must adapt to the same patter of development without growth (Sustainable Development) As an open system the economy cannot continue to grow beyond some point it must approximate a stead state in dimensions Resources throughput=population*per capita resource use (constant rate means it’s a steady state) An economy in a steady state is sustainable developed. Rees addresses steady-state economy Entropy (Rees) Entropy never decreases in second law of thermodynamics—reaches equilibrium Dissipative structure: efficiently dissipates heat generated to sustain it Non-growing finite ecosphere Thermodynamic equilibrium Second Law of Thermodynamics (Rees) In all energy exchanges if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. Potential energy Economy is governed by Second Law of Therm which is sustained by available energy imported form the ecosphere Nature is the consumer and economy is the consumer and the economy requires a continuous flow of energy and material inputs from nature to sustain the production of goods and services Neo-classical view is economy is a growing system separate from environmental Ecological economist believe economy is open and depended on closed ecosphere, all waste is just heat. Nature’s resiliency (Arrow) Nature is unstable system Inverted U equilibrium John Stuart Mill The economy can grow to a certain point and then stop when the needs are met and pursue non material things Fair Trade
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Can a business that’s main focus isn’t profit succeed? Ecological economics o Steady-state economy o Ray Anderson carpets Rees and Wackernagel (ecological footprint) Wackernagel—asses how many renewable resources we have and how much we can use and find the balance (Video) o Demand exceeds supply by 20% o Ecological deficient because we are spending more than is being restocked WCED Report 1987/Brundtland Report (sustainability) First idea of sustainable development (Redclif) World Commission on Environment and Development o Brought together environmental rights and human rights NGO’s to have an impact on sustainable development UNCED (1992) and Agenda 21 (Bern Johnson; Rio) United Nations Commission on Environment and Development Ecofeminism Diverging emphasis around common themes: health fertility of plants is connected to the wellbeing of women Three types o Liberal ecofeminism: to work with in mainstream (reformist) environmentalism, without challenging culture and economy o Cultural ecofeminism: ‘Gala’ earth goddess—changing by empowering women values of nurturing, not competition; problem of “essentialism” Essentialism: women have things in common but they’re not all the same o Social ecofeminism: (Chipko) challenging social structures that degrade women and environment Chipko: Nigerian women’s movement stopped the logging of trees Global Scenario Group ELAW-ish
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