We dont really know what language proficiency is but

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We don't really know what language proficiency is, but many people have talked about it for a long time. Some researchers have tried to find ways for us to make teaching and testing more communicative because that is how language works. I think that language is something we use for communicating, not an object for us to study, and we remember that when we teach and test it. Taken from Improved version:
38 Task 4: Below are some excerpts taken from different courses at different departments of METU. Read and underline how academic language is used in each. Excerpt 1: Perception can be defined as the “process by which peo ple organize and experience information that is primar ily of sensory origin” (Cole& Scribner, 1974, p.61). Perception as a psychological process has been thought to link people to the world around them or within them: We perceive size, shape, color, pain, and so on. Studies of perception flourished in the 1950s and 1960s, but their results remain significant today as a means of correcting persistent misunderstandings about the way human perception works. Schultz, E. A., & Lavenda, R. H. (2012). Cultural antrophology: A perspective on the human condition. London, UK: OUP. Excerpt 2: The science of geophysics applies the principles of physics to the study of the Earth. The scope of geophysical investigations varies from studies of the entire Earth to exploration of a localized region of the upper crust to determine the distribution of physical properties at depths that reflect the local subsurface geology. Geophysical surveying, although sometimes prone to major ambiguities or uncertainties of interpretation, provides a relatively rapid and cost-effective means of deriving information on subsurface geology. An alternative method of investigating subsurface geology is, of course, by drilling boreholes, but these are more expensive and provide information only at discrete locations. Geophysical surveying does not dispense the need for drilling, but, when properly applied, it can optimize exploration programmes by maximizing the rate of ground coverage and minimizing the drilling equipment. Introduction to Mineral Industries. (2018). Lecture presented at METU, Ankara.
39 Excerpt 3: The probability concept acquired an interpretation in terms of relative frequency because it was originally developed to describe certain games of chance where plays (such as spinning a roulette wheel or tossing dice or dealing cards) are indeed repeated for a large number of trials and where it is reasonable to assume that the elementary events of interest are equally likely. Similarly, there are numerous situations, in which statisticians make many obeservations under essentially the same conditions, and the mathematical theory of probability can be given a relative frequency interpretation in these situations as well. For instance, a quality-control statistician may observe thousands of items produced by a certain production process, and

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