Nevertheless at least 85 by weight of all fi bers in

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facturers or from postconsumer waste (textile or otherwise). Nevertheless, at least 85 % (by weight) of all fi bers in the product must be either in compliance with the corresponding fi ber-speci fi c criteria, if any, or of recycled origin. For each fi ber, the criteria have been chosen by taking into account the major impacts to the environment. For cotton, there is a list of restricted pesticides. There are special conditions if the cotton is organically grown. In this case, organic cotton can be added to the label if at least 95 % of the cotton is organic. If 70 95 % of the cotton in one product is organic, it may be labeled as made with X % organic cotton. Ecolabels and Organic Certi fi cation for Textile Products 177
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For fl ax, there are restrictions concerning water retting. Wool has restrictions in terms of pesticides and for the treatment of the wool scouring ef fl uent. For manmade fi bers, the ecolabel legislation established speci fi c criteria, either in terms of monomer or polymer production (e.g. emissions to air of acrylonitrile in acrylic fi bers) or in terms of toxic substances in the fi ber (e.g. adsorbable or- ganohalogens [AOX] in cellulosic fi bers or antimony in polyester). (b) Processes and chemicals In terms of chemicals, there is an increased concern about Registration, Eval- uation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) regulation. There are restrictions concerning the biodegradability of auxiliaries, fi nishing agents for fi bers and yarns, and detergents and softeners. Chlorine agents are excluded for bleaching yarns, fabrics, and end products. In terms of dyeing and printing, levels of ionic impurities in dyes and pigments are established. Dyes that are carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to reproduction or potentially sensitizing dyes are banned. Also, azo dyes that can cleave into a list of aromatic amines are banned (according to EU regulations). Chrome mordant dyeing is not allowed, and there are restrictions for metal complex dyes based on copper, chromium, or nickel. Halogenated carriers shall not be used. Printing pastes cannot contain more than 5 % volatile organic compounds. Plastisol-based printing is not allowed. The word fi nishes covers all physical or chemical treatments for a textile fabric s speci fi c properties. No use is allowed of fi nishing substances or fi nishing prepa- rations containing more than 0.1 % by weight of substances that are assigned or may be assigned at the time of application any of the following risk categories (or combinations thereof), as de fi ned by Directive 67/548/EEC: R40 (limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect) R45 (may cause cancer) R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage) R49 (may cause cancer by inhalation) R50 (very toxic to aquatic organisms) R51 (toxic to aquatic organisms) R52 (harmful to aquatic organisms) R53 (may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment) R60 (may impair fertility) R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child) R62 (possible risk of impaired fertility) R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child) R68 (possible risk of irreversible effects) Alternatively, classi fi
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