●Rapid Industrialization During the Gilded Age leads to greater income disparity Topics of the Gilded Age I. The New South & Early Civil Rights II. Moving West/Populist MovementIII. Industrialization/UrbanizationIV. Social and Political ReformI. The New South and Early Struggles for Civil Rights1. Reconstruction and Amendments- Reconstruction- U.S. government bringing the South back into the Union following the Civil War. 13th Amendment-Ended Slavery 14th Amendment-Equal protection under the law. 15th Amendment-Universal MALE suffrage Civil Rights Activists will use the 14thamendmentas the basis for equality and the end of segregation.In 1868, the 14thamendmentwas passed and had an immediate and long range significance to the nation. First it declared all persons born or ‘naturalized’ in the U.S. were citizens –thus the 14thamendment gave former slaves their citizenship.The 14thamendmentalso stated-‘No state should make or enforce any law which shallabridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the U.S.; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.’2. Restrictions on African American VotingWith a weakened 14thamendment, states began to add restrictions on voting●Poll taxes –pay to vote ●Literacy test –read/write to vote ●Grandfather clauses –allowed poor whites to vote because their grandfather voted. ●Disenfranchisement--losing your right to vote3. Plessy vs. Ferguson. In 1896 a landmark case came before the Supreme Court. Facts: Louisiana passed a Jim Crowlaw that provided for segregated, ‘separate but equal’ railroad cars. A plan of civil disobedience was put together to test the legality of the law. 1/8 black and 7/8 white, Homer Plessy was chosen to challenge the law. He bought a train ticket, entered the ‘white’ car, refused to leave and was arrested as planned. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court. Court rules segregation is legal.-Impact of Plessy V. Ferguson RulingThe decision allowed the following:●Legalized segregation ●The concept of “separate, but equal”●The creation of Jim Crow lawsacross the South, Midwest, and West required people be separated by race Constitutional question before the court:Can the states constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use ‘separate but equal’ segregated facilities?Court decision:Yes! States can require different races to use ‘separate but equal’ facilities.Examples of Jim Crow Laws include prohibiting blacks from:●Eating at restaurants ●Drinking from certain water fountains ●Using “whites only” restrooms●Attending “white” schools●Sitting in the “whites” section at theatersDiscrimination and the Jim Crowfueled hostile racial climate left African Americans in a nearly powerless condition.