~-:s__________I_n_d_ex___________________Digital signaturesICont.)public-key algorithms(Cont.)Matsumoto-Imaialgo-rithm, 500Ong-Schnorr-Shamir,498-499public-key cryptography,37-38attacks against, 43-44one-way hash functionsand, 38-39resend attack, foiling, 43RSA, 473-474Schnorr signature scheme,511-512subliminal-free,80with symmetriccryptosys-tems and arbitrator,35-37terminology,39timestamps,38trees, 37undeniable,81-82, 536-539Dining CryptographersProb-lem, 137Discrete logarithm,245in finite field, 261-263zero-knowledgeproofs, 548Discrete Logarithm Problem,501, 540-541Discrete logarithm signatureschemes, 496-498DistributedAuthenticationSecurity Service, 62Distributedconvertibleundeni-able signatures, 539Distributedkey management,187DNA computing,163-164DNRSG, 387DoD key generation,175Double encryption,357-358Double OFB/counter, 363-364Double spending problem,140-141Driver-level encryption, 222-223DSA,seeDigital SignatureAlgorithmDynamic random-sequencegen-erator, 387E-box, 273ECB,seeElectronic codebookmodeElectronic checks, 146Electronic codebook mode,189-191, 208-210combined with OFB, 364DES, 277-278padding, 190-191triple encryption,362-363Electronic coins, 146Electronic Frontier Foundation,608Electronic-fundstransfer, DESadoption, 268Electronic Privacy InformationCenter, 608ElGamal, 532-533EKE implementation,519encryption,478with DSA, 490-491patents, 479signatures, 476-478speed, 478-479ElGamal, Taher, 263Elliptic curve cryptosystems,480-481Elliptic curve method, 256Ellison, Carl, 362Encoding, 226Encrypt-decrypt-encryptmode,359Encrypted Key Exchange:applications,521-522augmented,520-521basic protocol, 518-519implementationwithDiffie-Hellman,519-520ElGamal, 519RSA, 519strengthening,520Encryption,1communicationchannels,216-220combining link-by-linkandend-to-end, 219-221with compressionand errorcontrol, 226data, for storage, 220-222detection, 226-22 7digital signatures with, 41-44driver-level versus file-level,222-223ElGamal, 478with DSA, 490-491end-to-end, 217-220with interleaving,210-211key,3knapsack algorithms,464link-by-link,216-218multiple,357with a private key, 39probabilistic,552-554RSA, 468with DSA, 491with symmetricalgorithm, 4using public key, 5End-to-end encryption,217-220combined with link-by-link,219-221Enigma, 13, 414Entropy, 233-234Entrustedundeniablesignature,82Error detection:during decryption,179during transmission,178Error extension,cipher blockchaining mode, 196Error propagation:cipher block chaining mode,195-196cipher-feedbackmode,201-202output-feedbackmode, 204Escrow agencies, 592Escrowed EncryptionStandard,97,593ESIGN, 499-500, 533-534Euclid's algorithm,245Euler totient function, 248-249Expansion permutation,273-275, 315Export:of algorithms,215-216,610-616foreign, 617Exportable ProtectionDevice,389Export AdministrationAct, 610EXPTIME, 241Extended Euclidean algorithm,246-248Factoring, 255-258general number field sieve,159-160long-range predictions,162public-key encryptionalgo-rithms,158-159special number field sieve,160-161using quadratic sieve, 159Factoring Problem, 501Failsafe:Diffie-Hellman,547-548key escrowing, 98Fail-stop digital signatures,85Fair cryptosystems,97Fait-Shamir, 508FAPKC0, 482FAPKCl, 482FAPKC2, 482

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