57.Production of concentrated urine:-59.Diuretic drugs-slow renal reabsorption of water causing elevated urine flow rate, reducing blood volume. Can treat high blood pressure. Interfere with a mechanism for reabsorption of filtered Na+. 60.Unrinalysis-an analysis of the volume and physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine, reveals a lot about the state of the body. Diagnostic values based off of various values. 61.Blood tests-blood urea nitrogen test measures blood nitrogen, high can be renal disease or obstructed urinary tract. Plasma creatinine high can be indication of poor renal function62.Renal Plasma Clearance-volume of blood that is cleaned or cleared of a substance per unit of time, determines kidneys ability to clear drugs from system S= U X V / P Can find out GFR 63.Loaksdj64.Dialysis- malfunctioning kidneys, blood cleaned artificially, separation of large solutes from small ones by diffusion through selectively permeable membrane.
Hemodialysis- directly filters blood by removing wastes then returning cleaned blood to body. Continuous ambulatory Peritoneal dialysis- can be done at home, dialysate in peritoneal cavity65.Ureters-transport urine from renal pelvis of kidney to the bladder. Peristaltic contractions push urine toward bladder, but hydrostatic pressure and gravity also contribute. When bladder full, opening into ureters compress to prevent backflow of urine. 3 tissue layers: Mucosa- transitional epithelium (can stretch) with underlying lamina propria and lymphatic tissue. Goblet cells secrete mucous to prevent cells from coming into contact with urineMuscularis- inner and outer circular layers of smooth muscle. Distal 3rdcontains extra layer of longitudinal muscles.