make the receiving cell more likely to fire become less negative relative to

Make the receiving cell more likely to fire become

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make the receiving cell more likely to fire; become less negative relative to outside—closer to reaching threshold Inhibitory Signal: makes it less likely to fire; becomes more negative relative to outside—farther from reaching threshold Major Neurotransmitters - GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid; the principle inhibitory NT (STOP) - Glutamate: the principle excitatory NT (GO) - Dopamine(DA): voluntary movement, reward circuits, cognitive processes; too little can result in Parkinson’s disease (treated with L-dopa), too much can result in Schizophrenia; related to drug craving and addiction; cocaine increases activity in dopamine circuits - Serotonin(5-HT): sleep, appetite, mood; some antidepressants like Prozac prevent reuptake of serotonin, for treating depression; called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - Norepinephrine(NE): sympathetic NS response, learning and memory, wakefulness, emotion; closely related to adrenaline - Endorphins (endogenous morphine): pain killers bind to our natural endorphin receptor sites and mimic endorphins, producing analgesia (pain relief) - Acetylcholine (Ach): memory, attention, arousal, muscle activation; low levels of Ach in Alzheimer’s disease; drug treatments increase Ach activity in brain; Nicotine mimics Ach, Curare blocks Ach
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Drug Effects in the Nervous System - Agonist: mimics the action of a neurotransmitter - Antagonist: inhibits the action of a NT (often by blocking receptor sites); some substances can also prevent reuptake or deactivation, so that more of the NTs stay in the synaptic cleft longer 18-10-02 Lecture 8 Research Methods in Brain Research - Lesioning: destroying a part of the brain and examining effects Deliberate lesions (animals, necessary brain surgeries) Experiments of nature (strokes, tumours, traumatic brain injuries, etc.) - Electrical Stimulation of Brain(ESB): stimulating a brain structure by sending a weak electrical current through an electrode; ex) Dr. Wilder Penfield Ex) ESB in animals using implanted electrodes Can stimulate (or record from) individual cells - Electroencephalography(EEG): monitoring the electrical activity of the brain over time using recording electrodes attached to the scalp; measures brain activity in very large groups of neurons. Ex) brain wave patterns during deep sleep vs. dreaming Event Related Potential(ERP): changes in brain activity in response to particular stimulus or ‘event’ - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS): using magnetic pulses to stimulate neurons near the surface of the brain Can create ‘virtual lesions’ Brain Imaging - To study the brain structure: CT scanning (computerized tomography): x-rays taken from various angles; computer used to combine them into an image of a slice of brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): uses powerful magnetic fields; measures vibrations in the nuclei of atoms; produces highly detailed 3D images of brain Good for when, not for where - To study brain function: Hemodynamic Methods: measures of blood flow over time
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