Oppression of women were founded on these concepts of female chastity and

Oppression of women were founded on these concepts of

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Oppression of women were founded on these concepts of “female chastity” and feminine virtue Emperor Guangxu Became emperor at age 16--led hundred days reform by attempting to improve education system Tolerance for free speech (even if against emperor) Free press Opportunity for everyone to submit a memorial to be considered by the emperor Succeeded his aunt Dowager Cixi Cixi put him on house arrest
Empress Dowager Cixi Aunt of emperor Guangxu Was anti-reform where she used up all the funds on warships for personal use and executed most modernists as wella s destroying the women’s school; not a single student graduated Summer Palace Summer resort to empress dowager and she used the funds for naval fleets before the Sino-Japanese War to extend the summer palace---eg of how she wasted military funds Symbolized the tradition and opulence of the imperial court she stood for Marble boat was made from funds intended to be used for the first Chinese warshi Japan’s Path to Reform President Fillmore’s overture Fillmore’s 1852 letter to the Tokugawa shogun of Japan Key incentives for US- Chinese trade w Japan being link, wanted transcontinental railroad Said US had no motive other than friendship and trade, CA rich in resources (incentive for trade) Offered short treaty 10-15 yrs, Japan could call end whenever Commodore Matthew Perry’s arrival Perry sailed straight into the BAy of Edo rather than Nagasaki Arrived in clipper ships and steamers w intention of surveying the bay Came in firing guns to intimidate the Japanese Objective: insist that the Tokugawa shogunate accept their terms of friendship. (forces it) Promises to return next year w a bigger fleet. Expects a response from Japan when they come back the second time Tokugawa Bakufu Last feudal Japanese military govt lasted b/w 1600-1868, Bakufu losing power and influence in society Allow or deny foreign culture in Japan Allow-increase beneficial trading w world powers, but risk further loss of bakufu Respect/authority Deny- conflict arises w powers, minimal trading, but nationalism and moral rise alongside bakufu authority Partial ‘samuraization’ of Japan Sonno Joi “Revere the emperor, expel the barbarians” Represented by the powerful Mito faction of daimyos and samurai Cannot tolerate the insult of Commodore Perry, there to spy and plot against
Warned of the threat of Christianity Make shogunate appear weak, give daimyos reason to break away from coalition Kaikoku “Open the country” Isolation will only put Japan in greater immediate danger “Raising the draw-bridge when the castle is besieged” Pretend to train merchant sailors, but in reality build formidable navy With artillery power secure, then the Bakufu can choose to expel the foreigners Perhaps even expand into Asia to ensure Japan’s national security The Harris Treaty Negotiated treaty of amity and commerce Us agree provide arms sales and military advisors Japan’s first modern training in warfare and weaponry

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