E a goal oriented group ing of the requirements to a

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directly logically connected to one another, i.e., a goal-oriented group- ing of the requirements to a common configuration has been per- formed. Consistency: The requirements contained in a configuration do not contradict one another, i.e., the configuration contains requirements that are contradiction free in their respective version. Unique identification: A configuration has a unique identifier (ID) which can be used to uniquely identify the configuration. Immutable: A configuration defines a certain, immutable state of the specification. If requirements of a configuration are changed, a new version of the requirements and potentially of the configuration is the result. Basis for rollbacks: If changes of requirements must be undone, config- urations offer the ability to roll back requirements to a specific version within a configuration. Therefore, a consistent state of the specification can be maintained. 8.5.3 Requirements Baselines Configuration vs. baseline Requirements baselines are specific configurations of requirements that typically comprise stable versions of requirements and, also, often define a release of a system. Due to that property, requirements baselines are usu- ally visible externally (e.g., to the contractor). When requirements base- lines are used, a number of important activities in the development process are supported: Basis for release planning: Requirements baselines are configurations of “stable” requirements, specially marked for the contractor. Baselines therefore serve as the basis of communication for the planning of sys- tem releases as well as their definition.
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8.6 Management of Requirements Changes 131 Estimation of the effort involved with implementation: As baselines of requirements can be used for the definition of system releases, they can also be used to estimate the effort needed to realize a system release. This can be done by estimating the partial effort involved with imple- menting a requirement of the baseline and summing up the total effort for the remaining baseline. Comparison to competing products: Requirements baselines can be used to compare the planned system to competing systems. 8.6 Management of Requirements Changes Requirements change over the course of the entire development and life cycle of a system. This means that new requirements are added and existing requirements are changed or removed. 8.6.1 Requirements Changes Reasons for changes The reasons for changes in requirements can be multifarious. Along with changes that stem immediately from errors or incomplete requirements, the evolution of the context can make it necessary to change the require- ments. For example, changes in the stakeholders’ desired application of the system, amendments to a law, new technologies, or additional competition in the market can influence the requirements and make changes necessary.
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