real world Use deductive reasoning to draw logical conclusions from the facts Informational-Processing Perspective 1
o Working memory (WM): temporary storage of information needed to perform a task Limited capacity and duration o Long-term memory (LTM): the permanent store of memory; information is transferred into LTM, stored in it, and retrieved from it Unlimited capacity and duration Learning and Memory Strategies o 7- to 8-year-olds: use less effective learning and memory strategies, such as rehearsal o Older children: use more effective learning and memory strategies, including: Organization : structuring new information into related categories Elaboration : making new information memorable by embellishing it Metacognition o “Knowing about knowing” o Being aware of how perception, cognition, intentions, and knowledge work o Adjusting strategies related to each o Metacognitive knowledge : awareness of cognitive processes Grows rapidly during the elementary school years Children become better aware of their senses, attention, intentions, knowledge, and thoughts Metamemory o Our intuitive understanding of memory Diagnosing memory problems accurately and monitoring the effectiveness of memory strategies o Children gradually understand memory through their theory of mind, including that: Memory is fallible Some memory tasks are easier than others Cognitive Self-Regulation o Skill at identifying goals, selecting effective strategies, and monitoring them o Characteristic of successful students o Can be taught Reading o In most languages, reading skill is comprised of two tasks: Word recognition : identify patterns (i.e., letters) Comprehension : extract meaning from sequence of words o Word recognition skill development process: 1. Sound out the word 2. Knowledge of word enters LTM storage 3. Or, sound out and ask skilled reader for help.
- Fall '14
- Intelligence quotient, IQ test scores, memory strategies