Little is being done at present to help students

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their thinking. Little is being done at present to help students "discover" their thinking. This emphasis needs shifting. Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker
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Defining Features : Thinkers move to the “challenged” stage when they become initially aware of  the determining role that thinking play in their lives and of the fact that problems in their thinking are  causing them serious and significant problems. Principal Challenge : To become initially aware of the determining role of thinking in one’s life and of basic problems that come from poor thinking. Knowledge of Thinking : Challenged thinkers, unlike unreflective thinkers are becoming aware of  thinking as such. They are becoming aware, at some level, that high quality thinking requires  deliberate reflective thinking about thinking (in order to improve thinking). They recognize that their  thinking is often flawed, although they are not able to identify many of these flaws. Challenged  thinkers may develop an initial awareness of thinking as involving concepts, assumptions,  inferences, implications, points of view, etc., and as involving standards for the assessment of  thinking: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness, etc., though they have only an initial  grasp of these standards and what it would take to internalize them. Challenged thinkers also  develop some understanding of the role of self-deception in thinking, though their understanding is  limited. At this stage the thinker develops some reflective awareness of how thinking operates for  good or ill. Skill in Thinking : Most challenged thinkers have very limited skills in thinking. However like  unreflective thinkers, they may have developed a variety of skills in thinking without being aware of  them, and these skills may (ironically) serve as barriers to development. At this stage thinkers with  some implicit critical thinking abilities may more easily deceive themselves into believing that their  thinking is better than it actually is, making it more difficult to recognize the problems inherent in poor thinking. To accept the challenge at this level requires that thinkers gain insight into the fact that  whatever intellectual skills they have are inconsistently applied across the domains of their lives. Relevant Intellectual Trait : The fundamental intellectual trait at this stage is intellectual humility, in  order to see that problems are inherent in one’s thinking.    Some Implications for Instruction : We must recognize the importance of challenging our  students - in a supportive way - to recognize both that they are thinkers and that their thinking often  goes awry. We must lead class discussions about thinking. We must explicitly model thinking (e.g., 
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