and I really wanted to emulate that in the movie and make the cinematic equivalent of his book” (“15 Minute Flick School”). Similarly, Stu Maschwitz, the visual effects supervisor on Miller’s solo-directorial debut, The Spirit , said “everyone always suspected that Frank Miller’s artwork was cinematic even though they didn’t really understand how to bring it to the screen until Sin City ” (“Green World”). 40. The graphic narrative mediums cinema has gravitated to since the emergence of digital filmmaking techniques include “live-action” versions of video games ( Resident Evil , Max Payne , and Prince of Persia ), cartoons ( Scooby Doo , Alvin and the Chipmunks , and The Smurfs ), toys ( Transformers and G.I. Joe ), and illustrated books ( The Grinch , The Cat in the Hat , and The Polar Express ). 41. In 1966, Paramount Pictures was purchased by Gulf & Western Industries heralding the start of a shift towards studio ownership by diversified, multinational conglomerates. 42. Spider-Man first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) before quickly receiv- ing his own title with The Amazing Spider-Man , which celebrated its 700th issue in December 2012. Soon after the character’s introduction, Spider-Man began appearing in other media,
281 Notes including the Saturday morning cartoon Spider-Man that aired on the US ABC network from 1967 to 1970; 1977 saw the emergence of a short-lived live-action television series on CBS (1977–78) and a syndicated comic strip (by Stan Lee and John Romita), while pinball machines could be found in arcades during the 1980s. 43. Fredric Wertham’s work has been criticized since the publication of Seduction of the Innocent . In 2010, the sources for Wertham’s study were made widely available, with Carol Til- ley identifying in her paper “Seducing the Innocent” how Wertham manipulated evidence. 44. Although superhero comics did not prompt the same level of scorn from Wertham as horror and crime comics, concessions still needed to be made. For instance, following Wertham’s suggestion that Batman and Robin’s relationship was “like the wish dream of two homosexuals living together” (190), female characters such as Bat-woman (1956), Batgirl (1961), and Aunt Harriet (1964) were introduced. 45. Production of the fourth Die Hard film, eventually titled Live Free or Die Hard , was delayed following 9/11 (Brodesser and Fleming). When finally released in 2007, Live Free or Die Hard became the first film in the franchise to target and receive the lower PG-13 rating. 46. Popular comic book writer Jeph Loeb summarized the success of Spider-Man as follows: “There was no reason why Spider-Man should have worked. I’m sure that Sony was terri- fied. The Batman franchise had flamed out. The Superman franchise had flamed out before that” (“Making the Amazing”). Loeb, in trying to create an underdog story, fails to note the success of X-Men (and to a lesser extent Blade ), which must have given the filmmakers some confidence.
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