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2. Edmund Andros' rule (1686-91) - The leader of the Dominion of New England was Sir Edmund Andros, an Englishmen with prior military experience. He had ties with Church of England, which infuriated the colonial Puritans. His soldiers' behavior on the Sabbath day further enraged the deeply religious settlers.While in power, Andros ruled the colonials with an iron fist. He placed heavy restrictions on the courts, press, and schools. He also withdrew all land titles and imposed taxation without representation upon the settlers. The New Englanders had become accustomed to almost autonomous government. These new limits brought colonials to the brink of rebellion. 3. Glorious Revolution and its impact on New England (1688-89) - As the English settlers resisted the efforts of Andros, so too did the people of old England resist oppression. It was the people of old England who eventually made the first crucial move against this oppression in the Glorious/Bloodless Revolution, during which the tyrannical Catholic James II was overthrown and replaced by the Protestant rulers of the Netherlands, William III and his wife Mary.The Glorious Revolution had a domino effect that spread throughout the colonies. When the news of the Glorious Revolution reached New England, the already flimsy foundation of the Dominion gave way. A Boston mob overturned the administration of the Dominion and sent the captured Andros back to England. Despite apparent success, Massachusetts did not benefit greatly from the revolution and was made a royal colony. The Puritans were never quite able to bounce back from this set back. Also impassioned by the Glorious Revolution, colonists in New York and Maryland created turmoil. Perhaps most significant was the marked relaxation of the despised Navigation Laws. In spite of the dramatic shift brought on by the Glorious Revolution, there were more English officials present in the colonies, many of who were inept and careless and were able to stifle the rise of locals to political power.VI. New York, New York and the Quaker StateA. Describe the Dutch West India Company's rule of New Amsterdam (1620s-1650s) - New Amsterdam was created by the Dutch West India Company with the purpose of making it a company town. It was run in the interests of stockholders. Settlers in New Amsterdam had very few civil liberties; there was no freedom of religion or speech and governors were appointed by company. The official religious institution was the Dutch Reformed church and nonconformists, such as the Quakers, were brutally abused. Finally, protests by colonists forced the company to create a local lawmaking body with limited power. B. The Rise and Fall of Peter Stuyvesant and Dutch New York - The growth of the Dutch sparked hostility in neighboring colonies. From 1638 to 1655 the Swedes trespassed on Dutch land and formed the colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River. 5
In 1655 the provoked Dutch sent a small military expedition led by Peter Stuyvesant, a skillful general, to attack the intruding Swedes. Swedish forces fell quickly after a bloodless siege and the Dutch reasserted their power.