A switch provides a central connection for multiple

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A switch provides a central connection for multiple media segments on the same subnet. When a switch receives a signal, it forwards that signal only to the port where the destination device is connected. o Switches use the MAC address to send frames to the destination device. o Switches operate in full-duplex mode, meaning devices can send and receive data at the same time because transmission paths are dedicated to only the communicating devices. o When possible, use switches instead of hubs. A router connects two network segments that have different subnet addresses. o A router has multiple network connections, with each connection being on a different subnet. o Routers use the IP address within a packet to move packets between networks. A bridge connects two segments within the same subnet that use different media types. For example, use a bridge to connect wireless clients to wired clients on the same network. A patch panel is a device that is commonly used to connect individual stranded wires into female RJ45 connectors. For example, you might connect 4 pairs of wires from a punchdown block to a port on the
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patch panel. On the patch panel, you then connect drop cables (cables with RJ45 connectors) to the patch panel on one end and a computer on the other end. An Ethernet over Power device allows for network communications to be transmitted over existing AC power lines. An Ethernet over Power device is plugged in to one AC power outlet, and a second Ethernet over Power device is connected to the same AC circuit. These devices multiplex the AC copper power lines to transmit digital network signals at a frequency higher than the AC electrical power already on the circuit. Standards Ethernet standards identify the transmission speed and the cable type. Data transfer rates are between 10 Mbps (very old Ethernet networks) to up to 10 Gbps. Between 100 and 1000 Mbps are the most common speeds for most networks. Distance Ethernet standards define the maximum distance for cable lengths between two devices: The maximum cable length for UTP Ethernet "T" implementations is 100 meters for all standards. The length for fiber optic cables varies depending on the cable type and specification, but typically ranges from 100 meters all the way up to 40 kilometers. Power over Ethernet Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology can be used to distribute electrical power along with network data on twisted-pair Ethernet cabling (CAT 5 or higher). Power is usually supplied by a PoE-enabled Ethernet switch. PoE is commonly used to power network devices that are located where physical access to a power outlet may not be available. For example, a PoE-enabled surveillance camera mounted on a tall pole can be powered via its Ethernet cabling.
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