Chapter 2. The Chemical Context of Life. From a periodic table, be able to determine: Atomic number Number of protons Mass number Number of electrons Atomic weight Number of neutrons Compare and contrast: Element, atom, molecule and compound Electron shell and valence shell Inert and reactive elements Stable and radioactive isotopes Neutral atoms and ions Covalent and ionic bonds Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds Form and function of biological structures What is the ‘Valence Shell’? What is the ‘Rule of the Octet’? Describe how these concepts can explain patterns of covalent bonds and provide examples. In what way does it explain the reactivity of Hydrogen? Be able to identify by name and chemical symbol these six important elements of living things. H – Hydrogen N – Nitrogen O – Oxygen P – Phosporus C – Carbon S - Sulfur What are hydrogen bonds? What type of compounds make hydrogen bonds? Chapter 3. Water and the Fitness of the Environment. Be able to explain five ways in which the polar nature of water molecules creates an environment suitable for life. Included in your explanation be sure to refer to: cohesion & adhesion high Specific Heat high Heat of Vaporization high Heat of Melting ice as a protective blanket water as the solvent of life Be able to define: solution, solvent and solute.
Bio181 Describe how salts are dissolved in water. What is evaporative cooling? How does it moderate global temperature? Your temperature? Be able to define and use: pH acid base buffer hydrophilic hydrophobic surface tension mole / molar solution Chapters 4 & 5. Organic Chemistry. What is ‘tetravalence’? What role does Carbon’s tetravalence have in this element’s importance to biochemistry? Compare and contrast inorganic and organic chemistry. Be able to describe the four ways in which organic molecules vary, and provide illustrations of each: length of carbon chain arrangement of double bonds between carbons variation in side chains (branching pattern) ring structures What is a hydrolytic reaction? What is a condensation (dehydration) reaction? Be able to write chemical equations for both types of reactions. Define: monomer, dimer, oligomer and polymer. Be able to describe the three classes of macromolecules that consist of polymers, each type of monomer, the bonds between monomers, and provide examples of each type of macromolecule that illustrate the link between form and function. Describe the difference between alpha and beta glycosidic linkages and their biological significance. For example: What is the relationship between amylose and amylase? How effective is amylase at hydrolyzing cellulose? Why? What characteristic defines the lipids? Name 3 types of lipids, their structures & functions. Know the following functional groups, where they are found and how they function: hydroxyl carbonyl aldehyde ketone carboxyl amine sulfhydryl phosphate Study Guide 4
Bio181 Study Guide 5
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