100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 7 pages.
The Tang Dynasty was the great age of Chinese poetry. Skill in composing poetry was tested in the civil service examinations, and educated men had to be able to compose poems at social gatherings.In Tang times Buddhism fully penetrated Chinese daily life.Buddhist monasteries became an important part of everyday life.At the intellectual and religious level, Buddhism was developing in distinctly Chinese directions.Two schools that thrived were Pure Land and Chan.Pure Land: A school of Buddhism that taught that by calling on the Buddha Amitabha and his chief helper, one could achieve rebirth in Amitabha’s Pure Land paradise.Chan: A school of Buddhism (known in Japan as Zen) that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of Buddhist truths.The East Asian Cultural SphereDuring the millennium from 200 b.c.e. to 800 c.e. China exerted a powerful influence on its immediate neighbors, who began forming states of their own.In Japan much of the process of absorbing elements of Chinese culture was mediated via Korea. In Korea, Japan, and Vietnam the fine arts — painting, architecture, and ceramics in particular —were all strongly influenced by Chinese models.Tibet, though a thorn in the side of Tang China, was as much in the Indian sphere of influence as in the Chinese and thus followed a somewhat different trajectory. Most significantly, it never adopted Chinese characters as its written language, nor was it as influenced by Chinese artistic styles as other areas. Moreover the form of Buddhism that became dominant in Tibet came directly from India, not through Central Asia and China.By the eighth century the written Chinese language was used by educated people throughout East Asia.Vietnamits ties are at least as strong to China, and its climate is much like that of southernmost China — subtropical, with abundant rain and rivers.The Vietnamese first appear in Chinese sources as a people of south China called the Yue, who gradually migrated farther south as the Chinese state expanded.The people of the Red River Valley in northern Vietnam had achieved a relatively advanced level of Bronze Age civilization by the first century b.c.e.The collapse of the Qin Dynasty in 206 b.c.e. had an impact on this area because a former Qin general, Zhao Tuo, finding himself in the far south, set up his own kingdom of Nam Viet (Nan Yuein Chinese).After almost a hundred years of diplomatic and military duels between the Han Dynasty and Trieu Da and his successors, Nam Viet was conquered in 111 b.c.e. by Chinese armies.
Chinese innovations that were beneficial to the Vietnamese were readily integrated into the indigenous culture, but the local elite were not reconciled to Chinese political domination.