14 Beliefs are About the Self Institutional world Brute world 15 Beliefs are

14 beliefs are about the self institutional world

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14 Beliefs are About the Self Institutional world Brute world 15 Beliefs are Formed by Direct observation Seeing is believing Inference Especially coherence Testimony, social proof Socially inherited 16
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11/17/19 5 Belief-Evaluation Networks Each belief, each evaluation, about objects, agents, events, does not exist as an isolated atom Rather they are found within holistic networks of connected beliefs and evaluations These clusters of beliefs and evaluations are called schemas in psychology, cultural models in anthropology, symbolic connectionist networks by philosopher Thagard,b and ideologies in politics 17 Socially Inherited Learning Most knowledge is learned from testimony (not direct observation) To illustrate, before they go to school, children ask around 10,000 questions each year, all aimed at probing why and how things happen And are persistent! Selective credulity Will accept trusted adult report over personal observation, but Quickly distrust even familiar adults who have given too much bad information in the past 18 Why? 19 Which Restaurant Do You Choose? 20
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11/17/19 6 Which USB Flash Drive Do You Buy? 21 Social Proof: Cognitive Shortcut What is correct? Spend days, weeks, months figuring out what is correct (true, appropriate, or right)? or Find out what most others think is correct? Very cheap Generally , it has good results Exceptions can be disastrous though Who Wants to be a Millionaire? Expert friend right 2 out 3 of times Majority of audience right 9 out of 10 times 22 They must know what the rules are here? 23 24
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11/17/19 7 Appiah You start out knowing nothing, and are born into the beliefs of your surrounding group Impossible to change all beliefs at once, only a few at a time, and even then in a manner coherent with remaining prior beliefs Auntie Akosua in Ghana Witchcraft causes illness Graduate student Sarah in New York City Viruses cause illness Appiah: Sarah is lucky (not wise) to be born into a a well-established tradition of scientific inquiry 25 Bi-Stable Perception: Can’t see both interpretations at the same time 26 Necker Cube 27 Bi-Stable Perception Modeled by Parallel Constraint Satisfaction Network (Thagard) 28
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11/17/19 8 Connectionist Network to Model Inference to the Best Explanation Evidence Empirical Observations Each observation can support or conflict with any other observation Explanatory Hypotheses One or more. If more than one, rival hypotheses conflict with one another. Each rival hypothesis is supported or contradicted by various pieces of evidence (some evidence will support more than one of the hypotheses, other evidence will support one but not the others, etc. ).
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