6 by week 8 the embryo is 15 inches long 7 the

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6.) By week 8, the embryo is 1.5 inches long. 7.) The internal organs are in place and embryo begins to look human. Principles of Prenatal Development Proximodistal 1.) Growth from middle to outside Cephalocaudal 1.) Growth from head to tail (feet) Mass to Specific
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1.) Large structures appear before finer details. 2.) Large movements appear before finer movements. Fetal Stage: Week 9 to Birth Baby grows dramatically: 1.) Body structures are refined. 2.) Building blocks of the brain are fully assembled. Neurons ascend to the top of the neural tube, reach their staging area, and begin to differentiate. Fetal Stage Age of viability is 22 weeks (earliest date for possibility of survival). 1.) Vital that baby’s lungs are mature enough to breathe in oxygen and to expel carbon dioxide. By the 25th week, viability is above 50% if acute care is available. Birth weight is important to health of baby. 2.) Baby needs as much time in the womb as possible. 3.) During the last 2 months, fetus gains almost 5 pounds. Poised to Be Born Fetus positioned in the womb late in pregnancy. Notice the placenta, amniotic sac, and umbilical cord. Pregnancy Gestation Period: 267-277 days 1.) Divided into trimesters (about 3 months each) 2.) Important! Each woman may vary in her experience (physical and emotional) of pregnancy. First Trimester a. Following implantation of blastocyst into uterus, flood of hormones may produce fainting, headaches, fatigue, tender breasts, and morning sickness. 1. Progesterone; human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) b. Miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) more prevalent at this time: 1. Roughly 1 in 10 pregnancies ends in miscarriage. 2. Miscarriage rate increases to 1 in 5 for women in their late thirties. Pregnancy: Second Trimester Physically may feel much better By week 14, uterus grows (maternity clothes!)
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Quickening occurs (first indication of movement of the fetus) Feelings of attachment may begin a. A strong sense of attachment during pregnancy predicts positive bonding after birth. Pregnancy: Third Trimester Physical Symptoms and Emotional States a. Leg cramps, backaches, numbness in lower limbs, heartburn, insomnia b. Irregular uterine contractions as baby sinks into the birth canal c. Anxious anticipation may begin as the focus shifts to the birth. Pregnancy Is Not a Solo Act Forces that may contribute the experience of distress during pregnancy a. Economic concerns; low SES 1. places women at risk of feeling demoralized and depressed 2. possible lack of access to prenatal care, proper foods, and often, social support Positive forces a. Presence of a loving partner may predict a happy pregnancy. b. The perception of being cared about and loved; a sense of connectedness Husbands also may experience strong emotions. a. May feel concerned about this life change b. Social support necessary Threats to the Developing Baby: Birth Defects Category 1: Teratogens Teratogens : substances that may cross the placenta to harm the developing embryo or fetus Examples: a. Medications – Thalidomide b. Diseases – Rubella c. Recreational Drugs – Alcohol, Nicotine, Cocaine d. Environment – Pesticides, Radiation e. Stress – hormones and effects on unborn baby Basic Teratogenic Principles
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  • Fall '16
  • Psychology, Uterus, low birth weight, single gene disorder

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Christopher Reinemann
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