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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Some words dont translate between cultures

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different national cultures. Some words don’t translate between cultures. Understanding the word “sisu” will help someone communicate with people from Finland, but this word is untranslatable into English. In some cultures, language is formal, and in others, it is informal. Because of this, language barriers can be caused by tone differences . In some cultures, the tone changes depending on the context. People may speak differently at home, in social situations, and at work. Using a personal, informal style in a situation where a more formal style is expected can be embarrassing and off-putting. People who speak different languages actually view the world in different ways. Therefore, language barriers can also be caused by differences among perceptions. Many people assume that others are more similar to them than they actually are. But people from different countries are often very different. A person is far less likely to make an error if they assume others are different. For example, Eskimos perceive snow differently because they have many words for it. Thais perceive “no” differently than Americans because the former has no such word in their vocabulary. An organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. Organizations have different structures and these structures have a bearing on employee attitudes and behavior. When designing their organization’s structure, managers need to address the six following key elements: work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, and formalization. The term "work specialization", or division of labor, is used to describe the degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. The essence of work specialization is that, rather than an entire job being done by one individual, it is broken down into a number of steps, with each step being done by a separate individual. In essence, individuals specialize in doing part of an activity rather than an entire activity. Because Henry Ford utilized this idea on his assembly line, he was able to produce cars at the rate of one every ten seconds while using employees who had relatively limited skills. The more specialized a job, the more narrowly focused the skills required for that job.
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Once jobs have been divided up through work specialization, these jobs need to be grouped together so that common tasks can be coordinated. departmentalization is the basis by which jobs are grouped together. One of the most popular ways to group activities is by the functions performed. Tasks can also be departmentalized by the type of product the organization produces. Another way to departmentalize is on the basis of geography or territory. A final way to departmentalize is by the particular type of customer the organization seeks to reach. For instance, the sales activities in an office supply firm can be broken down into three departments to service retail, wholesale, and government customers.
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