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Virtually all projects are planned and implemented in a social, economic, and environmental context, and have intended and unintended positive and/or negative impacts. The project team should consider the project in its cultural, social, international, political, and physical environmental contexts. • Cultural and social environment.The team needs to understand how the project affects people and how people affect the project. This may require an understanding of aspects of the economic, demographic, educational, ethical, ethnic, religious, and other characteristics of the people whom the project affects or who may have an interest in the project. The project manager should also examine the organizational culture and determine whether project management is recognized as a valid role with accountability and authority for managing the project. • International and political environment. Some team members may need to be familiar with applicable international, national, regional, and local laws and customs, as well as the political climate that could affect the project. Other international factors to consider are time-zone differences, national and regional holidays, travel requirements for face-to-face meetings, and the logistics of teleconferencing. • Physical environment.If the project will affect its physical surroundings, some team members should be knowledgeable about the local ecology and physical geography that could affect the project or be affected by the project.
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®Guide)Third Edition 2004 Project Management Institute, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA 15 1 1.5.4 General Management Knowledge and Skills General management encompasses planning, organizing, staffing, executing, and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise. It includes supporting disciplines such as: • Financial management and accounting • Purchasing and procurement • Sales and marketing • Contracts and commercial law • Manufacturing and distribution • Logistics and supply chain • Strategic planning, tactical planning, and operational planning • Organizational structures, organizational behavior, personnel administration, compensation, benefits, and career paths • Health and safety practices • Information technology. General management provides the foundation for building project management skills and is often essential for the project manager. On any given project, skill in any number of general management areas may be required. General management literature documents these skills, and their application is fundamentally the same on a project. 1.5.5 Interpersonal Skills The management of interpersonal relationships includes: • Effective communication.The exchange of information • Influencing the organization.The ability to “get things done” • Leadership.Developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy • Motivation.Energizing people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to change • Negotiation and conflict management.