CH.3 & 4 Concepts Questions.docx

The ozone layer lies between 15 and 48 kilometers up

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The ozone layer lies between 15 and 48 kilometers up. It is centered in the lower stratosphere. Human-Caused Atmospheric Change 9. How ozone is formed, and why is it important in the atmosphere? That is where the concentration of ozone relative to other gases is at its maximum. Even in the section of the ozone layer where the ozone attains its greatest concentration.
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10. What is meant by the “hole” in the ozone layer, and what role have chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) played in this? The thinning of the ozone layer observed since the 1970s is due primarily to the release of human – produced chemicals. In the 1970s it showed that the most problematic of these chemicals are chlorofluorocarbons. 11. Describe and contrast primary pollutants and secondary pollutants in the atmosphere. Primary pollutants – a contaminant released directly into the air. Secondary pollutants – contaminants that form as a consequence of chemical reactions or other processes in the atmosphere. 12. Describe and explain the causes of photochemical smog . Nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons – both of which can result from the incomplete burning of fuels. Nitrogen dioxide breaks down under UV radiation, forming nitric oxide. Weather and Climate 13. What is the difference between weather and climate ? Weather – refers to short-term atmospheric conditions that exist for a given time in a specific area. Climate – is the aggregate of day-to-day weather conditions over a long period of time. 14. What are the four elements of weather and climate ? Temperature, moisture content, pressure and wind. 15. Briefly describe the seven dominant controls of weather and climate . The seven dominant controls of weather and climate are latitude, distribution of land and water, general circulation of the atmosphere, general circulation of the oceans, altitude, topographic barriers, and storms. 16. Describe the Coriolis Effect and its cause. A result of Earth’s rotation, all things moving over the surface of Earths appear to drift sideways. Chapter 4 Insolation and Temperature Key Terms and Concepts Questions After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions. Key terms from each text section are shown in bold type . Definitions for key terms are also found in the glossary at the back of the book. Energy, Heat, and Temperature 1. What is the difference between heat (thermal energy ) and temperature ? Temperature is a description of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. Heat refers to energy that transfers from one object or substance to another because of a difference in temperature. 2. What is the relationship between the internal kinetic energy of a substance and its temperature? When a substance becomes warmer, it means that the average kinetic energy of the molecules in that substance has increased.
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