Coast for thousands of miles stopping at increments

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Unformatted text preview: coast for thousands of miles, stopping at increments of as little as a few feet to measure their elevation, and mark- (10) ing each increment with two poles. To measure the difference in elevation between poles, surveyors used an optical level—a telescope on a level base—placed halfway between the (15) poles. They sighted each pole, read- ing off measurements that were then used to calculate the change in eleva- tion over each increment. In sight of the peaks the used theodolites— (20) telescopes for measuring vertical and horizontal angles—to determine the elevation of the summit. The Chinese, however, made efforts to correct for the errors that (25) had plagued the British. One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. Because light traveling. (30) down from a summit passes through many such layers, a surveyor could sight a mirage rather than the peak itself. To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to (35) within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air that light passed through on its way to their theodolites. The Chinese also launched weather balloons near their (40) theodolites to measure atmospheric temperature and pressure changes to better estimate refraction errors. Another hurdle is the peak’s shape. When surveyors sight the summit. (45) there is a risk they might not all measure the same point. In 1975 the Chinese installed the first survey beacon on Everest, a red reflector visible through a theodolite for ten (50) miles, as a reference point. One more source of error is the uneven- ness of sea level. The British assumed that carrying in sea level would extend an imaginary line from (55) the shore along Earth’s curve to a point beneath the Himalaya. In reality, sea level varies according to the irregular interior of the planet. The Chinese used a gravity meter to correct for local deviations in sea level.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q32 It can be inferred from the passage that refraction would be most likely to cause errors in measurements of a mountain’s elevation under which of the following conditions? A. When there are local variations in sea level B. When light passes through humid air C. When theodolites are used relatively far from the mountain peak. D. When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure. E. When sea level has been carried in to Within five to twelve miles of the summit. Answer:------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q33 Which of the following best describes the purpose of the sentence in lines 23-25 (“The Chinese…the British”)? A. Introduce a definition B. Signal a transition in focus C. Summarize the preceding paragraph D. Draw a contrast between two different theories....
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