Parathyroid (par′-a-THĪ-royd) gland One of usually four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) A hormone secreted by the chief (principal) cells of the parathyroid glands that increases blood calcium level and decreases blood phosphate level. Also called parathormone. Paraurethral (par′-a-ū-RĒ-thral) gland Gland embedded in the wall of the urethra with a duct that opens on either side of the urethral orifice and secretes mucus. Also called Skene’s (SKE–NZ) gland. Parenchyma (pa-RENG-kĪ-ma) The functional parts of any organ, as opposed to tissue that forms its stroma or framework. Parietal cell A type of secretory cell in gastric glands that produces hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. Parietal pleura (PLOO-ra) The outer layer of the serous pleural membrane that encloses and protects the lungs; the layer that is attached to the wall of the pleural cavity. Parkinson’s disease (PD) Progressive degeneration of the basal nuclei and substantia nigra of the cerebrum resulting in decreased production of dopamine (DA) that leads to tremor, slowing of voluntary movements, and muscle weakness. Parotid (pa-ROT-id) gland One of the paired salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears and connected to the oral cavity via a duct (parotid) that opens into the inside of the cheek opposite the maxillary (upper) second molar tooth. Pars intermedia A small avascular zone between the anterior and posterior pituitary glands.
8/21/2017 Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 82/118 Patent (PĀ-tent) ductus arteriosus (PDA) A congenital heart defect in which the ductus arteriosus remains open. As a result, aortic blood flows into the lower-pressure pulmonary trunk, increasing pulmonary trunk pressure and overworking both ventricles. Pathogen (PATH-ō-jen) A disease-producing microbe. Pectinate (PEK-ti-nāt) muscles Projecting muscle bundles of the anterior atrial walls and the lining of the auricles. Pectoral (PEK-tō-ral) Pertaining to the chest or breast. Pedicel Footlike structure, as on podocytes of a glomerulus. Pelvic cavity Inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures. Pelvic splanchnic (PEL-vic SPLANGK-nik) nerves Consist of preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the levels of S2, S3, and S4 that supply the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the descending and sigmoid colon and rectum. Penis (PĒ-nis) The organ of urination and copulation in males; used to deposit semen into the female vagina. Pepsin Protein-digesting enzyme secreted by chief cells of the stomach in the inactive form pepsinogen, which is converted to active pepsin by hydrochloric acid.
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