DSST Substance Abuse Study Guide 2

Harrison act an act that became law in 1914 it

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*Harrison act: An act that became law in 1914. It criminalizes the non-medical use of drugs. KNOW THIS * Cosmetic act: To increase drug safety. KNOW THIS * Fermentation: The process by which sugar is converted into alcohol through the biochemical action of yeast. Fermentation forms the basis for all alcoholic beverages. Fruits & grains are fermented to create beverages which include beer & wine. Through fermentation, the alcohol concentration is limited to 15%. Fermented beverages have existed since approximately 6400BC. Cocaine is extensively metabolized , primarily in the liver , with only about 1% excreted unchanged in the urine. The metabolism is dominated by hydrolytic ester cleavage, so the eliminated metabolites consist mostly of benzoylecgonine (BE), the major metabolite , and other significant metabolites in lesser amounts such as ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and ecgonine . KNOW THIS Methadone: is a synthetic opioid , used medically as an analgesic and a maintenance anti- addictive and reductive preparation for use by patients with opioid dependency . KNOW THIS Rohypnol AKA Flunitrazepam marketed as a potent hypnotic , sedative , anticonvulsant , anxiolytic , amnestic , and skeletal muscle relaxant drug most commonly known as Rohypnol . An intermediate acting benzodiazepine , flunitrazepam is prescribed for the treatment of severe insomnia . Ketamine: AKA SPECIAL K - The hallucinogen pain-killing drug ketamine. Has effects similar to PCP & is commonly used in veterinary anesthetic. KNOW THIS Precursors: The raw materials that neurotransmitters are made from. They are found circulating in the blood supply & in the brain. Therapeutic Index: The TI is the ratio of LD50 to ED50 which is one indication of the relative safety of a drug for a particular use or effect. It consists of two parts. LD50 indicates the lethal dose for 50 percent of test animals. ED50 is the effective dose for 50 percent of test animals.
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Serotonin: Adequate amounts of serotonin are necessary for a stable mood & to balance any excessive excitatory neurotransmitter firing in the brain. Stimulants can cause a depletion of serotonin over time. It regulates other processes such as carb cravings, sleep cycle, pain control & appropriate digestion. Low serotonin levels are associated with decreased immune system function, aggression, regulation of body weight, depression, suicide & excessive alcohol consumption. KNOW THIS Cross tolerance: When tolerance to one drug reduces the effectiveness of each of the others. Cross tolerance exists among all the Opioids. With tolerance, repeated use results in decreased effect, which makes it necessary to increase the dose to achieve the same effect. Know what Clozapine is: it inhibits white blood cells KNOW THIS
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  • Winter '12
  • None
  • Morphine, cocaine, Benzodiazepine

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