is under hypnosis • Evidence suggests that false memories cannot be created for just any kind of memory – memories must at least be plausible .
Forgetting: Ebbinghaus • Curve of forgetting : a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually – distributed practice: spacing one’s study sessions produces better retrieval – massed practice: studying a complete body of information all at once
Curve of Forgetting Ebbinghaus found that his recall of words from his memorized word lists was greatest immediately after learning the list but rapidly decreased within the first hour. After the first hour, forgetting leveled off.
Forgetting: Encoding Failure • Encoding failure : failure to process information into memory Stop! Many people look at stop signs multiple times a day. Which of these stop signs is closest to an actual stop sign? (The answer can be found in the notes section of this slide.)
Forgetting: Memory Trace Theory • Memory trace : physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed – decay : loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used – disuse : another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear – memories recalled after many years are not explained by memory trace theory
Forgetting: Interference Theory • Proactive interference : memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information • Retroactive interference : memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information
Proactive and Retroactive Interference If a student were to study for a French exam and then a Spanish exam, interference could occur in two directions. When taking the Spanish exam, the French information studied first may proactively interfere with the learning of the new Spanish information. But when taking the French exam, the more recently studied Spanish information may retroactively interfere with the retrieval of the French information.
Formation of LTMs • Consolidation: changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed – long-term potentiation : changes in number and sensitivity of receptor sites/synapses through repeated stimulation • Hippocampus: area of brain responsible for the formation of LTMs
Amnesia • Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past • Anterograde amnesia : loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories – “senile dementia” (Senile dementia' is a outdated term that used to be used when it was thought that memory loss and confusion was a normal part of ageing, rather than being caused by specific diseases like Alzheimer's.
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- Fall '17