Introduction_to_Network_Notes.docx

Address resolution is used when a device on the lan

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Address resolution is used when a device on the LAN knows the IPv6 unicast address of a destination but does not know its Ethernet MAC address. Will send an NS message to the node address. Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) - When a device is assigned a global unicast or link-local unicast address, it is recommended that DAD is performed on the address to ensure that it is unique. To check the uniqueness of an address, the device will send an NS message with its own IPv6 address as the targeted IPv6 address, shown in Figure 3. If another device on the network has this address, it will respond with an NA message. This NA message will notify the sending device that the address is in use. To perform pinging the local loopback , we ping the local loopback address of 127.0.0.1 for IPv4 (::1 for IPv6). A response from 127.0.0.1 (loopback address) for IPv4, or ::1 for IPv6, indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. A ping to the gateway indicates that the host and the router interface serving as the gateway are both operational on the local network. A successful ping across the internetwork confirms communication on the local network, the operation of the router serving as the gateway, and the operation of all other routers that might be in the path between the local network and the network of the remote host. Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path. This list can provide important verification and troubleshooting information. Round Trip Time (RTT) - The round trip time is the time a packet takes to reach the remote host and for the response from the host to return. An asterisk (*) is used to indicate a lost or unreplied packet. Traceroute makes use of a function of the TTL field in IPv4 and the Hop Limit field in IPv6 in the Layer 3 headers, along with the ICMP time exceeded message. Chapter 8 – Subnetting IP Networks
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In an Ethernet LAN, devices use broadcasts to locate: Other devices – a device uses ARP that sends a Layer 2 broadcast to a known address for their MAC address. Services – uses broadcasts to configure an IPv4 address using DHCP. Routers do not propagate broadcasts. A large broadcast domain is a network that connects many hosts. A problem with a large broadcast domain is that these hosts can generate excessive broadcasts and negatively affect the network. These networks can slow the operations due to the significant amount of traffic it can cause And slow device operations since a device must accept all other broadcast being sent How do we avoid large broadcast domains? We create smaller broadcast domains in a process called subnetting. These network spaces are called subnets. Creating 2 subnets:
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Router interfaces must be assigned an IP address within the valid host range for the assigned subnet. This is the address that hosts on that network will use as their default gateway. Usually use the first or the last available address in the network range.
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