Cultural values emphasizing deference, obedience, respect,and humility (e.g., Leyendecker et al.2002; Marín andMarín1991) within Latino families may influence children’sinhibited behavior (e.g., Gudiño and Lau2010). The inte-gration of theoretical models of culture and developmentalpsychopathology and additional research focused on exam-ining individual variation within a disorder may be promis-ing areas for elucidating processes of risk and resilience andimproving prevention and intervention efforts.The present study sought to move beyond main effectmodels of risk to more fully understand how temperamentvulnerability interacts with environmental factors to conferrisk for PTSD. An approach to developmental psychopathol-ogy research that focuses on identifying risk for specificsymptom profiles within a disorder may prove quite fruitfulin several important ways. For example, a greater understand-ing of how individual differences in behavioral inhibition990J Abnorm Child Psychol (2013) 41:983–992
create general risk for anxiety disorders and specific risk forthe development of PTSD avoidance symptoms followingexposure to violence would lead to a more complete under-standing of etiology.Knowledge about etiology will also be greatly enhancedby continued research on the biological substrates that un-derlie behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, andPTSD. However, research examining phenotypic differen-ces can inform research on gene-environment interactions tothe extent that it can assist in identifying more focused areasfor further exploration. A more refined understanding ofetiology could then improve our ability to personalize inter-ventions for maximal effectiveness. For example, futureresearch may suggest that while avoidance and numbingare important intervention targets for all children withPTSD, children with high behavioral inhibition require ad-ditional exposure-based intervention, more proactive inter-vention to generalize gains, and/or cognitive interventionstargeting appraisals of threat that extend beyond trauma-related stimuli. Clinical assessment of behavioral inhibitionmay thus prove essential if it can inform case conceptuali-zation and intervention planning. While these clinical impli-cations are merely speculative at this point, they highlightthe potential utility of translational research examining howbiological, environmental, psychological, and cultural/con-textual influences increase risk for the development ofPTSD or promote resilience in the face of trauma.ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2000).Diagnostic and statisticalmanual of mental disorders, 4th ed, text revision. Washington,DC: American Psychiatric Association.Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Bolduc-Murphy, E. A., Faraone, S. V.,Chaloff, J., Hirshfeld, D. R., et al. (1993). A 3-year follow-up ofchildren with and without behavioral inhibition.Journal of theAmerican Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 814–821.