Cultural values emphasizing deference obedience respect and humility eg

Cultural values emphasizing deference obedience

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Cultural values emphasizing deference, obedience, respect, and humility (e.g., Leyendecker et al. 2002 ; Marín and Marín 1991 ) within Latino families may influence children s inhibited behavior (e.g., Gudiño and Lau 2010 ). The inte- gration of theoretical models of culture and developmental psychopathology and additional research focused on exam- ining individual variation within a disorder may be promis- ing areas for elucidating processes of risk and resilience and improving prevention and intervention efforts. The present study sought to move beyond main effect models of risk to more fully understand how temperament vulnerability interacts with environmental factors to confer risk for PTSD. An approach to developmental psychopathol- ogy research that focuses on identifying risk for specific symptom profiles within a disorder may prove quite fruitful in several important ways. For example, a greater understand- ing of how individual differences in behavioral inhibition 990 J Abnorm Child Psychol (2013) 41:983 992
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create general risk for anxiety disorders and specific risk for the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms following exposure to violence would lead to a more complete under- standing of etiology. Knowledge about etiology will also be greatly enhanced by continued research on the biological substrates that un- derlie behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and PTSD. However, research examining phenotypic differen- ces can inform research on gene-environment interactions to the extent that it can assist in identifying more focused areas for further exploration. A more refined understanding of etiology could then improve our ability to personalize inter- ventions for maximal effectiveness. For example, future research may suggest that while avoidance and numbing are important intervention targets for all children with PTSD, children with high behavioral inhibition require ad- ditional exposure-based intervention, more proactive inter- vention to generalize gains, and/or cognitive interventions targeting appraisals of threat that extend beyond trauma- related stimuli. Clinical assessment of behavioral inhibition may thus prove essential if it can inform case conceptuali- zation and intervention planning. While these clinical impli- cations are merely speculative at this point, they highlight the potential utility of translational research examining how biological, environmental, psychological, and cultural/con- textual influences increase risk for the development of PTSD or promote resilience in the face of trauma. References American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed, text revision . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Bolduc-Murphy, E. A., Faraone, S. V., Chaloff, J., Hirshfeld, D. R., et al. (1993). A 3-year follow-up of children with and without behavioral inhibition. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32 , 814 821.
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