During the decade following Britain’s entry to the EU, government policies continued to provide a degree of protection for parts of the agricultural sector. Moves to remove this protection accelerated from 1984, as the new Labour government began a large-scale process of economic liberalisation and deregulation. New Zealand is now unique among developed countries in that our farmers receive no subsidies from government and have to compete with subsidised production from other producing countries (Statistics New Zealand, 1999). In most of the agricultural and horticultural sectors, producer boards have been established in order to provide a level of coordination in the processing, marketing and distribution of products. Some of these boards are able to compulsorily purchase product from farmers, and have the sole right to export them; in other industries they have less power. This cooperative approach acts to reduce the variability in returns to producers. 4.2 Financial Services Industry The banking and financial services sector in New Zealand today is highly competitive but it hasn’t always been that way. Until the mid-1980s, only four commercial banks operated in the country, and these were subject to governmental controls over their interest rates, investments, and lending portfolios. Other organisations (such as savings banks, building societies and finance companies) offered a more limited range of banking service, and were also subject to tight government control. Strong restrictions on foreign exchange transactions effectively protected New Zealand banks from overseas competition, and the lack of any effective competition in the sector meant that
Subscribe to view the full document.
19little innovation occurred. Ledingham (1995 p. 163) has characterised the sector at this time as being “boringly stable”. The large commercial banks developed multi-levelled hierarchies and mechanistic cultures appropriate for the stable and predictable environment. They were also dominated by male managers at higher levels in the hierarchy, despite having a majority of female employees (see, for example, Bank of New Zealand, 1984). Large overseas banks or the government owned the commercial banks and their savings bank subsidiaries, and other savings banks were either owned by government or had explicit government guarantees. Probably in common with many other countries, commercial banks were considered to be cautious and conservative, with cultures ill-suited to rapid or radical change (Harris, 1996). During the 1970s and 1980s, competition developed outside the banking sector, with finance companies, building societies and other organisations beginning to capture an increasing share of the deposits and lending markets. These institutions exerted pressure to be allowed entry to other activities (such as foreign exchange dealing) which government regulations excluded them from. The distinction between banks and non-banks began to diminish and, in 1984-85, government carried out major reform of the financial sector.
As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.
Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern
I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.
University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern
The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.