Garcia, F. Bridge Financing for Education in Northern Samar. (unpublished) 50Morallas-Basarte, A. Integrated Health Initiatives For Two IP Communities in Surigao del Norte. (unpublished)51Under this scheme, private secondary schools were contracted to provide free education through the provision by the government of student subsidies paid directly to the private school.
Knowledge for Poverty Alleviation (KPA) Framework - Talisayon and Suministrado Page 21 of 22 two case validation exercises that involved key officers of PEF and CCLFI.Philippines and the partner institutions52. In terms of social empowerment, the elements that were present were the following: the increased sense of confidence and self worth of the community, together with the organization of community members into formal groups; and the institutionalization of programs, through agreements with the LGUs, for instance, to ensure that the programs can be continued even after the end of the project. The elements related to social empowerment that were lacking and that should have been addressed by the projects as early as project conceptualization include:1.Developing leaders and second-liners; 2.Continuous organizational strengthening, capacity building, and developing organizational self-reliance; 3.Help the community attract and work with various stakeholders who can assist them in their development needs; and 4.Helping the community determine their development needs, participate in planning and charting directions. In terms of economic sustainability, the absence of an income-generating or sustainable livelihood component was evident in some projects. It was noted that many of the projects were on the expense side (providing access to services and resources that had to be bought) and were not matched on the income side. There were no clearly defined activities on how the community will be able to afford such services on a sustained basis. This was particularly noticeable in the case of FEDI where access to water was accompanied by monthly water bills and SUNGCOD’s project with the indigenous people where settling them in a permanent location would expectedly create the need to purchase basic services and utilities. 6. Concluding Observations The wedding of two powerful development paradigms ―knowledge-based management and sustainable development ―is a continuous and challenging task. This paper on the Knowledge for Poverty Alleviation or KPA framework attempted to contribute to this task in several ways. Firstly, building on previous proposals and studies, the KPA framework outlines how intangible assets of communities can be recognized, assessed, leveraged, developed and managed in ways that are sustainable. Action items are identified to help bring theory to application. Secondly, in extending the intellectual capital discourse to community-level anti-poverty projects, it was found necessary to reframe prevailing concepts of ―asset‖, ―capital‖ and 52These are the Case Study Presentation: SRRE and KPA Framework Validation Workshop attended by officers of PEF and CCLFI.Philippines held last February 8-9, 2008 in Quezon City; and the Case Study Presentation to