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Impose enforce rules fairly impartially so theres an

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impose & enforce rules fairly & impartially so there’s an equitable distribution of benefits & costs - favoured by union members b/c ppl are paid the same wage regardless of
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P ART 4: S HARING THE O RGANIZATIONAL V ISION performance diff’s; seniority is primary determination in making layoff decisions - BUT encourage sense of entitlement that dec.↓risk-taking, innovation, productivity Care - express care in protecting special relationships that ppl have w/ each other - be aware of needs, desires, well-being of those to whom we are closely connected *RESEARCH: men & women do NOT differ in use of justice vs. care in making decisions Factors Influencing Ethical Decision-Making Behaviour - (un)ethical actions are result of immoral individuals + work environment that promotes unethical activity Stages of Moral Development stages of moral development = development stages that explain a person’s capacity to judge what’s morally right - higher a person’s moral development → less dependent he is on outside influences → more he’ll be predisposed to behave ethically THE 3 LEVELS: ppl proceed thru stages one step @ a time, but do not always reach highest stage - most adults are @ mid-level (strongly influenced by peers & follow org’s rules) - those @ higher stages → most likely make ethical decisions Locus of Control - External: → less likely to take responsibility for consequences of their behaviour more likely to rely on external influences to determine their behaviour - Internal: → rely on internal standards of right/wrong to guide their behaviour Organizational Environment = employee’s perception of org. expectations - characteristics that foster high ethical decision making: -written codes of ethics -performance appraisals that evaluate means & ends -realistic performance expectations -high moral behaviour by senior management -visible recognition & promotions for ppl who display high moral behaviour -visible punishment for ppl who act unethically - righteous ppl can be corrupted by unethical org. environment Stages of Moral Development Locus of Control Preconventional 2. Following rules only when doing so is in immediate interest 1. Sticking to rules to avoid physical punishment Conventional 4. Maintaining conventional order by fulfilling obligations to which you’ve agreed 3. Living up to what is expected by ppl close to you Principled 6. Following self-chosen ethical principles even if they violate the law 5. Valuing rights of others, upholding absolute values & rights regardless of the majority’s opinion Ethical Decision- Making Behaviour
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P ART 4: S HARING THE O RGANIZATIONAL V ISION Organizational Environment Making Ethical Decisions - decision tree to guide ethical decisions (built on Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice) Question 1: self-interest vs. org. goals (utilitarianism ) Question 2: concerns rights of others Question 3: whether decision conforms to standards of equity & justice - however, still, many ppl can justify unethical behaviours to org’s best interests Organizational Response to Demands for Ethical Behaviour - companies that take ethics seriously tend to be more successful - Canada does not legally require ethical culture in companies -
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