Effort to establish arabic schools to maintain

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effort to establish Arabic schools to maintain culture and language- lobbying government to include Arabic studies in university curricula Establishment of several Arabic schools - School of Arab Studies at Sao Paolo UniversityLebanese Schoolin 1990, Sarah Shane School and Al-wataniyah school for Science and Literature Newspapers and magazines- Al-Fayah (1895), Al-Raqib, Al-Asmahi Poets like Safic Maalouf and Riyad Maalouf Al-Rabita Al-Qalamiyah (Arabic Pen Association in America) Modernize Arabic from Classical into ModernStandard Arabic (MSA) No effort to establish Arabic schoolslike in Latin America; more of a melting pot and integration into English
Ex/ Khalil Jabran in New Yorkthey use simple arabic, grammer, terms that are borrowedPost Second World War (after 1945) Arabic LiteratureTaha Hussein- Dean of Arabic Literature (Ameed Al-Adab Al-Arabi) He modernized Arab literatureSome other key names such as Badr Shakir Al-Sayyab, Khalil Al Moutran, Salah Abdel Labour, Tawfik Al-Hakim, Nagib Mahfouz, Ghassan Kanafani, Amin Maalouf and Said AkilNovels of ReconciliationDepicting social reality in a state of harmony which are combined with concern about threatening changesExample - novels of Tawfique Al HakimNovels of exposureExposing the weakness of society and its institutions without exhibiting real commitment to the restructuring of the existing orderExample - novels of Nagib Mahfouz, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra, Tayyib Salih Novels of revolutionary changeCommitted to revolutionary change in society, have more pronounced ideologiesExamples - novels of Kahili Gibran, Abdelrahman Munif, Abdel Rahman Sharqawi, Ghassan Kanafani, Yusuf AlQaed Arab Adab MultazemPopularized in the immediate post-World War II era, when French existentialists, particularly Jean-Paul Sartre, pushed the idea that artists (writers, cineastes, poets, etc.) have serious responsibility to society: that a person defines himself by consciously engaging in willed action.The position of committed literature was a reaction against the creed of “art for art’s sake” and against the “bourgeois” writer, whose obligation was to his craft rather than his audience. Engagement is an individual moral challenge that involved the responsibility of adapting his freely made choices to socially useful ends.Free Verse Movement Started in the early 1960s, and now dominates the Arabic poetry scene throughout the Arab World. It is rare these days to find new Arabic poetry written in the classical metric tradition.The three giant poets in the free verse genre are: Nizar Qabbani - Adonis (Ali Ahmad Said Esber) - Mahmoud Darwish. Adonis was instrumental in starting this movement, along with Lebanese poet Youssef al-Khal who jointly produced a quarterly high quality journal called Sh’ir (Poetry)Some Arab Women Free-Verse Poets: Nazek al-Malaika (Iraq) - Fadwa Touqan (Palestine) – and Nadia Tueni (Lebanon)Arab Women Novelists

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