d.v. Proteins are enormous molecules d.vi. Proteins in the membrane are called integral proteins d.vii. Proteins in the membrane but not in the membrane are peripheral proteins d.vii.1. Mostly are in the E face of the plasma membrane d.viii. Anchoring proteins d.viii.1. Binds to other cells using the phospholipids, creating multi- cellular layers (tissues) d.viii.2. Membranes proteins are bound to the cytoskeleton, a network of supporting filaments in the cytoplasm. d.viii.3. Outside the cell, membrane proteins may attach the cell to extracellular protein fibers d.ix. Recognition proteins d.ix.1. Organ rejection, cells recognize our sugars, an immune responsible, cells in your body go around looking for sugars and telling it if it’s good and if it’s not it will kill it. d.ix.2. Example: glycoproteins d.x. Enzymes d.x.1. Enzymes in cell membranes could be both integral or peripheral proteins d.x.2. Catalyze reactions in the extracellular fluid (cytosol) d.xi. Ligand is a signal molecule d.xii. Proteins have a finite lifetime, so we must get proteins inside system d.xiii. Receptor proteins d.xiii.1. Integral proteins d.xiii.2. Signal transduction
d.xiii.2.a. Binding of the ligand d.xiii.3. The receptor is transducing the signal from the outer cell to the inner cell d.xiv. Carrier proteins d.xiv.1. Integral d.xiv.2. Bind solutes and transports them across the cell membrane d.xiv.3. The shape of the proteins are changed when they begin to carry the solutes and then back to original shape when they have transported the solute d.xiv.4. May require the usage of ATP for some processes d.xiv.4.a. Example: glucose transportation d.xiv.4.b. When insulin binds to the cell, you get more carrier proteins, which allows the glucose to get into the cells allowing for a higher level glucose even by a high carbohydrate meal d.xv. For something to move in a membrane you must have a gradient and a pathway d.xvi. Leak channel is a core in membrane that is permissive to certain substances d.xvi.1. Physical stimulation causes channels to open d.xvii. Gated channel is a channel that has a gate in them, has the capacity to close d.xvii.1. Ligand gated channels d.xvii.1.a. binding sight with a ligand, causing the protein to change, thus the gate opening d.xvii.2. Voltage gated channels d.xvii.2.a. change of voltage across the membrane allows the gate to open d.xvii.3. Mechanically gated channels d.xvii.3.a. “a mechanical switch needed to open the gate”
d.xvii.3.a.i. Ex. Finger touching your skin, going to your plasma and ions following through to allow feeling the sensation of the vibration. e. Membrane Carbohydrates e.i. Glycoprotein and glycolipid combined is called the glycocalyx e.ii. Glycocalyx importance is that it provides protection for the plasma membrane on the E face from any type of chemical damage e.iii. The sugars from the glycoproteins and the glycolipids make up for the “cell coat”, glycocalyx.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 59 pages?