Ex morphine heroin methadone the brain produces

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Ex. Morphine, heroin, methadone. The brain produces peptides called e____. Endorphin synapses may contribute to certain kinds of reinforcement by i____ the release of G____ indirectly. E_____ also have reinforcing effects independent of d____ T_____ (THC) is the active ingredient in m______. THC attaches to cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain but especially the c ____ c___, c___, b____ g____, and h_____ A____ and 2-AG are the endogenous chemicals that attach to these receptors. The location of the receptors in the brain may account for the subjective effects of the l___ of t___, an intensification of s ___ experience, and possibly memory i_____ The cannabinoid receptors are located on the p___ neuron and inhibit the release of g ____ and G___
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Research with rats has shown the phenomenon of “time passing more slowly” H____ drugs caused distorted perception Many h_____ drugs resemble s_____ in their m _____ s_____. Hallucinogenic drugs stimulate s____ type __ receptors (5-HT2A) at i____ times or for l___ duration than usual thus causing their subjective effect. Types of hallucinogens: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Methylenedioxymethamphetime (MDMA or “ecstasy”): a s____ at small dosages but a h____ at larger dosages Indication that long-term use of hallucinogenic drugs is associated with impaired m____ and l ____, and loss of s___ receptors. (figure) Alcohol and alcoholism Alcohol is a drug that has a long historical use and is used widely throughout the world. In moderate amounts, alcohol is associated with r____. In greater amounts, it impairs j___ and d____ the liver and other organs, and ultimately can ruin lives. A____/ a____ d____ is the h ___ use of alcohol despite medical or social harm Alcohol has a number of diverse physiological effects, including: _____ response by the G___ receptor ____ of glutamate receptors ____ dopamine activity Strong influence of genetics on alcoholism The genetic basis for early-onset alcoholism is ____ than for later-onset, especially in m___ Researchers distinguish between two types of alcoholism. Type ___/____ Type ___/___ Type I/Type A characteristics include: ____ onset (usually ___ 25) G____ onset ____ genetic relatives with alcoholism ____ quantity between men and women Type II/Type B  characteristics include: _____ onset (usually ____ 25) More ___ onset _____ genetic relatives with alcoholism Men ____ women Genes influence the likelihood of alcoholism in many ways, such as: Long form type 4 receptor  are more  ____ and need more alcohol to provide _____ More active C ____ decreases r _____ and is linked to impulsivity. Responses to s___ and a____-inducing experiences ____ exposure to alcohol Research on sons of alcoholic fathers shows: ___ average intoxication after one drink
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S ____ decreases more than for the average person S___ than normal amygdala (figure: 指示图里面说 follow-up  发现这些人更可能变成酒瘾者 ) Various factors contribute to continued substance abuse: T_____ develops C ___ in response to cues Brain r___ (n____ a____ and prefrontal cortex) Medication used to combat alcoholism include: A _____ R ____ (naloxone) Many do not respond to other treatments so medications have been used to reduce  cravings A_____ (d_____) 
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  • Spring '17
  • opioid ____ ____, _____ _____ activity, r____ gambling activities

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