A regional survey of deer damage throughout Northeast nurseries and orchards J

A regional survey of deer damage throughout northeast

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A regional survey of deer damage throughout Northeast nurseries and orchards. J. Environ. Hort. 18:1–4 Leopold A. 1933. Game Management . New York: Scribner’s. 481 pp. Leopold A, Sowls LK, Spencer DL. 1947. A survey of overpopulated deer range in the United States. J. Wildl. Manag. 11:162–77 Lewis MA, Murray JD. 1993. Modelling ter- ritoriality and wolf-deer interactions. Nature 366:738–40 Lockwood JA, Lockwood DR. 1993. Catastro- phe theory: a unified paradigm for range- land ecosystem dynamics. J. Range Manag. 46:282–88 Loison A, Langvatn R, Solberg EJ. 1999. Body mass and winter mortality in red deer calves: disentangling sex and climate effects. Ecog- raphy 22:20–30 Long ZT, Carson WP, Peterson CJ. 1998. Can disturbance create refugia from herbivores: an example with hemlock regeneration on treefall mounds. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125:165– 68 Lyly O, Saksa T. 1992. The effect of stand Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 2004.35:113-147. Downloaded from Access provided by University of British Columbia on 01/30/18. For personal use only.
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142 C ˆ OT ´ E ET AL. density on moose damage in young Pinus sylvestris stands. Scand. J. For. Res. 7:393– 403 Martin JL, Baltzinger C. 2002. Interaction among deer browse, hunting, and tree regen- eration. Can. J. For. Res. 32:1254–64 Maschinski J, Whitham TG. 1989. The con- tinuum of plant responses to herbivory: the influence of plant association, nutrient avail- ability, and timing. Am. Nat. 134:1–19 May RM. 1977. Thresholds and breakpoints in ecosystems with a multiplicity of stable states. Nature 269:471–77 McCabe TR, McCabe RE. 1997. Recounting whitetails past. See McShea et al. 1997b, pp. 11–26 McCullough DR. 1979. The George Reserve Deer Herd . Ann Arbor: Mich. Univ. Press. 271 pp. McCullough DR. 1997. Irruptive behavior in ungulates. See McShea et al. 1997b, pp. 69– 98 McCullough DR. 1999. Density dependence and life-history strategies of ungulates. J. Mammal. 80:1130–46 McCullough DR, Jennings KW, Gates NB, El- liott BG, Didonato JE. 1997. Overabundant deer populations in California. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 25:478–83 McInnes PF, Naiman RJ, Pastor J, Cohen Y. 1992. Effects of moose browsing on vegeta- tionandlitteroftheborealforest,IsleRoyale, Michigan, USA. Ecology 73:2059–75 McIntosh R, Burlton FEW, McReddie G. 1995. Monitoring the density of a roe deer Capro- leus caproleus population subjected to heavy hunting pressure. For. Ecol. Manag. 79:99– 106 McLean C. 1999. The effect of deer culling on tree regeneration on Scaniport Estate, Inverness-shire: a study by the Deer Com- mission for Scotland. Scot. For. 53:225–30 McNaughton SJ. 1979. Grazing as an optimiza- tion process: grass-ungulate relationships in the Serengeti. Am. Nat. 113:691–703 McNaughton SJ. 1983. Compensatory plant growth as a response to herbivory. Oikos 40:329–36 McNulty SA, Porter WF, Mathews NE, Hill JA. 1997. Localized management for reduc- ing white-tailed deer populations. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 25:265–71 McShea WJ. 2000. The influence of acorn crops on annual variation in rodent and bird popu- lations. Ecology 81:228–38 McShea WJ, Monfort SL, Hakim S, Kirkpatrick J, Liu I, et al. 1997a. The effect of immuno- contraception on the behavior and reproduc- tion of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manag.
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