Ecology for textiles and by inference eco labels for

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endangering air purity. Ecology for textiles, and by inference eco-labels for textiles, may address pro- duction, human, and disposal ecologies. Because the textile industry is truly global in scope, products are made and sold throughout the world. Therefore, compliance with various companies individual requirements can be a challenge. Some trade regulations have produced uni fi ed information label requirements that describe the country of origin and fi ber content. Eco-labels are now attempting to inform con- sumers additionally of the textile ecology of the products they are buying. For modern production technologies, analytical laboratories (after rapid infor- mation dissemination) can produce eco-certi fi cations and labeling schemes that are transparent, accurate, and cost-effective. Until recently, textile labels that addressed composition, care, and origin were considered adequate. Human ecology, produc- tion ecology, and lifecycle information are now demanded by major international retailers. The eco-labels of the future will provide a myriad of information that encompasses the social and environmental aspects of a product. 3 Sustainability Sustain means to maintain or to uphold. With regards to industrial processes, sustainability means establishing principles and practices that help to maintain the equilibrium of nature or, in other words, to avoid damage to the earth s natural sources. A greater degree of sustainability in industrial processes and systems requires a better balance between the social, economic, and environmental aspects of textile production. A sustainable product is one that is manufactured in the following ways: (1) It respects the social elements of fair trade and the human rights of the people involved in the whole of the manufacturing chain. (2) It has the lowest possible adverse effect on the environment with the most ef fi cient use of water and energy, recycling of raw materials and water, and recovery of heat from wastewater. (3) It should not be an uneconomic choice versus less sustainable products and the economic returns should be fairly distributed along the supply chain. Various fashion brands and retailers are considering the options available to make their products green. To achieving more ethical or sustainable clothing, one should start at the design stage, such as the use of more sustainable textile fi bers and low-impact dyes and chemicals. Eco-friendly fi bers may be natural or synthetic, but they must have reduced environmental impact in their production and processing compared to conventional fi bers. Exclusion or reduction in the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers during their production results in less hazards for human beings, especially for farmers. Some of these fi bers have been used in the textile and apparel industries for a long time but became more important in recent years due to Development of Eco-labels for Sustainable Textiles 143
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their environmental bene fi ts, such as organic fi bers (cotton, wool, silk), recycled
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