creativity and work is being done to examine large scale assessment items that

Creativity and work is being done to examine large

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creativity, and work is being done to examine large-scale assessment items that encourage a range of responses (see for example Schukajlow et al. 2015a , b ). Current approaches to classroom assessment have shifted from a view of assessment as a series of events that objectively measure the acquisition of knowledge toward a view of assessment as a social practice that provides continual insights and information to support student learning and in fl uence teacher practice. These views draw on cognitive, constructivist, and sociocultural views of learning (Gipps 1994 ; Lund 2008 ; Shepard 2000 , 2001 ). Gipps ( 1994 ) suggested that the dominant forms of large-scale assessment did not seem to have a good fi t with constructivist theories, yet classroom assessment, particularly formative assessment, did. Further work has moved towards socio-cultural theories as a way of theorizing work in classroom assessment (e.g., Black and Wiliam 2006 ; Pryor and Crossouard 2008 ) as well as understanding the role context plays in international assessment results (e.g., Vos 2005 ). 2.1.3 Common Principles There are certain principles that apply to both large-scale and classroom assessment. Although assessment may be conducted for many reasons, such as reporting on students achievement or monitoring the effectiveness of an instructional program, several suggest that the central purpose of assessment, classroom or large-scale, should be to support and enhance student learning (Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation 2003 ; Wiliam 2007 ). Even though the Assessment Standards for School Mathematics from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in the USA (NCTM 1995 ) are now more than 20 years old, the principles they articulate of ensuring that assessments contain high quality math- ematics , that they enhance student learning , that they re fl ect and support equitable practices, that they are open and transparent, that inferences made from assessments are appropriate to the assessment purpose, and that the assessment, along with the curriculum and instruction, form a coherent whole are all still valid standards or principles for sound large-scale and classroom assessments in mathematics education. 4 Assessment in Mathematics Education
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Assessment should re fl ect the mathematics that is important to learn and the mathematics that is valued. This means that both large-scale and classroom assessment should take into account not only content but also mathematical prac- tices, processes, pro fi ciencies, or competencies (NCTM 1995 , 2014 ; Pellegrino et al. 2001 ; Swan and Burkhardt 2012 ). Consideration should be given as to whether and how tasks assess the complex nature of mathematics and the cur- riculum or standards that are being assessed. In both large-scale and classroom assessment, assessment design should value problem solving, modeling, and rea- soning. The types of activities that occur in instruction should be re fl ected in assessment. As noted by Baird et al., assessments de fi ne what counts as valuable learning and assign credit accordingly ( 2014 , p. 21), and thus, assessments play a
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