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House of Representatives, eventually served as Speaker of the House. Clay served multiple terms in the U.S. House (1811–14, 1815–21, 1823–25) and Senate (1806–07, 1810–11, 1831–42, 1849–52).He promoted several major governmental compromises to balance the rights of free and slave states.
The Jackson ImpulseDaniel Webster -Massachusettssuccessful lawyer in Bostonelected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1812, and later, in 1827, won a seat in the U.S. Senate. A leader of the Whig Party—a group that opposed President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats—Webster ran for president in 1836.
JacksonInternal Improvements –federal programs to build roads, canals, and railroadsMaysville Road Bill, 1830 –vetoed by JacksonOpposed federal aid to local projectsSupported interstate projects like the National Road, roads in the territories, and river and harbor bills
NullificationTariff of 1828 –(tariff of abominations)An 1828 protective tariff, or tax on imports, motivated by special-interest groups. It resulted in a substantial increase in duties thatangered many southern free traders.Nullification –a state could repeal, nullify, or declare a federal law “null and void.”
NullificationWebster-Hayne Debate -concerned public lands, or lands owned by the Federal government.; resolution of Samuel Foote (of Connecticut), calling for:"an inquiry into the expediency of abolishing the office of surveyor general of public lands, and for suspending further surveys until those already in market shall have been disposed of.“
NullificationWebster-Hayne Debate –Hayne's First Speech: makes an overture to westerners who resent federal lands within their boundaries. His main point: They should cast the land problem in terms of state sovereignty, and ally themselves with southerners, whose opposition to the tariffwas intertwined with the state sovereignty principal. Webster's First Speech:public lands are being sold as fast as they can be settled. To sell them cheaper would simply put them in the hands of speculators, and very likely retard their settlement. The current policy is necessary due to the terms under which the lands were acquired. New England is the west's true friend, having given the northwest, at least, a rational system of land sales, and having kept slavery out of the Northwest territory. New England has voted for all western measures, while the south has voted against them.
NullificationWebster-Hayne Debate –Hayne respondswith a flashy speech with Shakespearean allusions, and quotations from famous English orators. He taunts Webster with the "coalition", a milder codeword for the "corrupt bargain" which was supposed to have been struck between the east (Adams) and the west (Clay)He defends slavery and attacks its enemies. He quotes a curious passage of Edmund Burke warning the English Parliament that for slaveholders "Freedom is ...