Boyer M Ishii and P Caldwell 2012 Human induced global ocean warming on

Boyer m ishii and p caldwell 2012 human induced

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Boyer, M. Ishii, and P. Caldwell. 2012. Human-induced global ocean warming on multidecadal timescales. Nature Climate Change 2:524-529. Mikolajewicz, U., B. Santer, and E. Maier-Reimer. 1990. Ocean response to greenhouse warming. Nature 345:589-593. Information that you found from your research to help answer the above question : - Human actions and choices affect the oceans rising temperatures. - “We have identified a human-induced fingerprint in observedestimates of upper-ocean warming” ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Increase of CO2 levels = rise of sea levels as well as ocean temperatures rising - “deep-ocean temperature changes associated with a CO2 warming” - “Changes in surface air temperature resulting from a doubling in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive changes in ocean circulation. Results from an ocean general circulation model project a global mean sea level rise from thermal expansion alone to be 19 cm in 50 years. Regional values, however, can vary: a rise of 40 cm is projected in the North Atlantic (owing to reduction of deep-water formation), whereas the level of the Ross Sea actually falls through changes in ocean circulation.” Question 4: How do rising ocean temperatures threaten corals? Explain the biological mechanism. Literature search : identify a few keywords based on the guiding question above, and perform a search on Web of Science to find articles to answer it. Recommended sources: You may only use articles from the listed high- impact journal to answer this question. To narrow your search to the specified journals in Web of Science, click on “Source Titles” on the left and pick the journals of interest, and click on “Refine”. To get only review articles, click on “Document Type” and pick “Review”.
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Lab 5 – Activity 2 Worksheet – 9 points Keywords : Ocean temperatures, effects, coral reef References : Hoegh-Guldberg, O., and J. F. Bruno. 2010. The Impact of Climate Change on the World's Marine Ecosystems. Science 328:1523-1528. Osborne, K., A. A. Thompson, A. J. Cheal, M. J. Emslie, K. A. Johns, M. J. Jonker, M. Logan, I. R. Miller, and H. P. A. Sweatman. 2017. Delayed coral recovery in a warming ocean. Global Change Biology 23:3869-3881. Information that you found from your research to help answer the above question : - “Among the most clear and profound influences of climate change on the world's oceans are its impacts on habitat-forming species such as cor als, sea grass, mangroves, salt marsh grasses, and oysters. Collectively, these organisms form the habitat for thousands of other species. Although some resident species may not have absolute requirements for these habitats, many do, and they disappear if the habitat is removed.” -> extinction of species due to ocean warming can lead to extinctionof habitat …the coral reef ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - “Chronic heat stress may take the form of deviations from average temperature conditions that cause milder, sublethal coral bleaching rather than mortality (Riegl, Berumen, & Bruckner, 2013), but this can have multiyear legacy effects in reducing coral growth rates (Jokiel & Coles, 1990; Mendes & Woodley, 2002) and fecundity (Baird & Marshall, 2002) and increasing susceptibility to disease.”
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