Private speech peaks at ages 5 to 7, and disappears by age 9. Very sociable children use private speech the most. In the brightest children it peaks at age 4. The brighter the child, the younger that private speech is used and the earlier it transits from out-loud private speech to silent speech or thought. that precedes and plans actions. This transition from audible private speech to silent inner speech is a fundamental phase of cognitive development. Private speech is not completely abandoned, however, and is resurrected during times of confusion or in a tough situation. “Let’s see... now how did I get into this mess?” “Who can help me out?” “Is that the street I should’ve turned on?” “Why don’t you just get out and push your car? You’ll go faster.” “You SOB! Whoever taught you how to drive?” Since private speech helps a child to guide their thinking, you should not insist on total silence in instances where others are not inconvenienced, like when doing homework. Talking to self or muttering should not be considered bad behavior or a punishable offense. zone of proximal development- Vygotsky’s theory is NOT a stage theory approach but instead focuses on the zone of proximal development . This zone of prox devel is the potential of learning where a child can be successful with appropriate help, support and guidance. He/she cannot do it alone but can do it with mediated help like clues, reminders, structure, verbal prompts, explanations, encouragement, praise, examples, breaking into manageable steps-- all called learning aides or scaffolding which is mediated help or support for learning and problem solving. Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development focuses on the gap between children’s performance
alone and with guidance from another person. Learning begins long before school starts. Learning precedes development; it awakens development. Humans have a specific social nature whereby they glean from the intellectual life of those around them. They can develop their intellect by imitating those around them, by bouncing things off of them . However, they can only imitate what is within their development level. Zone of proximal devel tests try to measure potential levels rather than actual achievement levels as IQ tests do. Using leading questions, clues, examples, demonstrations, mediated help— otherwise known as scaffolding —children are tested on items that are as much as 2 years ahead of their actual levels of achievement. ZPD tests measure what children can do with the mediated help of others. IQ tests measure what they can do on their own. As the children progress more and more , the adults help less and less for achieved material, concentrating their scaffolding efforts for what now is the new potential material.
- Spring '16
- Van Auken
- Psychology, Theory of cognitive development