100%(14)14 out of 14 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 2 - 5 out of 9 pages.
When hemoglobin releases the oxygen, it becomes dark red ____deoxyhemoglobin_____________.What is hypoxia? Is a condition where the tissues are not oxygenated adequately, usually due to aninsufficient concentration of oxygen in the blood.What is cyanosis? A bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.To store more hemoglobin, red blood cells discard their _______nuclei_________ during development. Without DNA, RBCs cannot reproduce or produce proteins.RBCcounts:What is a typical RBC count for males? 4,600,000-6, 2000,000 cells per mm cubic What is a typical RBC count for females? 4,500,000-5,100,000 cells per mm cubic2
RBC Production:After birth, RBC production occurs in the red ____bone_____ _marrow_________.The average life span of a red blood cell is __________120 days______________.Control of RBC production:Hormonal Control:The total number of red blood cells remains relatively constant due to a _negative_____ feedback mechanism utilizing the hormone __erythropoietin___that is released from the kidneys and liver in response to the detection of low ________oxygen_______ levelsDietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production:Vitamins ____B12____ and _____folic_______ acid are needed for DNA synthesis, so they are necessary for the reproduction of all body cells, especially in hematopoietic tissue.The mineral ____________iron_________ is also needed for hemoglobin synthesis.Destruction of Red Blood Cells With age, red blood cells become increasingly fragile and are damaged by passing through ____narrow capillaries______________.Macrophages in the liver__ and ___spleen______ phagocytize damaged red blood cells.Hemoglobin from the decomposed red blood cells is converted into ____heme___ and ______globin__________.What happens to the heme and iron? Heme is decomposed into iron and biliverdin.Iron is recycled into new hemoglobin or stored in the liver.How is physiologic jaundice in newborns related to the destruction of heme? How is it treated?3
The enzyme bilirubin UDPglucuronyl transferase is less active in newborns than in adults, as the fetalbilirubin was transferred to the mother and the fetus did not need this enzyme until after birth. It is treatedwith phototherapy.Red Blood Cell DisordersWhat is anemia? A deficiency in red blood cells or quantity of hemoglobin.What is sickle cell disease? A severe hereditary form of anemia in which a mutated form ofhemoglobin distorts the red blood cells into a crescent shape at low oxygen levels. It is most commonamong those of African descent. White Blood Cells (WBC) = Leukocytes:Figure 17.10 on page 640 in the textbook has pictures of the WBC’sWBCs protect against diseases and are produced in response to hormones.Five types of white blood cells are in circulating blood and are distinguished by size, granularappearance of the cytoplasm, shape of the nucleus, and staining characteristics.