The latter is a regional expert group tha:seeks to develop independent standards for privacy protection in order to influer.rcethe enactment of privacy laws and bring about the adoption of regional privac''agreements in accordance with those standards.62 Another issue, the proliferation c':e-"mail advertising, has received increasing attention from consumers and markete:.recently-see the Making Responsible Decisions box above'63I7-13. The..1wrlnl7"l&" Whoi ore the three lypes ol responses generoled by direct morketingr:ctivities?obllity to design ond use direclmorketingprogroms hos increosedthe ov<rilobility oiondLEARNING O BJECTIVES REYIS}VLO I7'l Discuss integratetl rnarketing communicationand the communication proee$li.Integrated marketing communication is the concePt of design-ing marketing communications programs that coordinate allpromotional activities-advertising, personal se11ing, salespromotion, public relations, and direct marketing-to providea consister-tt message across all audiences. The communicationprocess conveys messages with six elements: a source, a message,a channei of communication, a receiver, and encoding anddecoding. The communication process also includes a feedbackloop and can be distorted bY noise'L0 17.2 Deseribe the prornotional mix and theuniqueuess of eaeh component.Theie are five promotional alternatives. Advertising, salespromotior.r, and public relations are mass selling approaches,whereas personal selling and direct marketing use custonl--':messages. Advertising can have high absolute costs but re i' r': 'Iarge numbers of people. Personal selling has a hlgh cosi :'-contact but provides immediate feedback. Public relatio:-''often difficult to obtain but is very credible. Sales prom" ' -influences short-term consumer behavior. Direct mark;-- -can help develop customer relationships although mait'Lta'- - -a database can be very exPensive.LO 17"3 Select the promotiotal approach appropriiite l- Iproiluetb target audience, life-cycle stage, and charac-teristies, as r.r'ell as stages of the buying decisionand chantrel stratesies"The promotional mix depends on the target audience Pros:'-for consumers, business buyers, and intermediaries :- '-'emphasize advertising, personal selling, and sales pronri.496 CHAPTER 17
respectiv+ The promotional mix also changes over the productlife-cycle stages. During the introduction stage, all promotionalmix elements are used. During the growth stage advertising isemphasized, while the maturity stage utilizes sales promotionand direct marketing. Little promotion is used during the declinestage. Product characteristics aiso help determine the promo-tion mix. The level of complexity, risk, and ancillary servicesrequired will determine which element is needed. Knowing thecustomer's stage in the buying process can help seiect appropriatepromotions. Advertising and public relations can create awarenessin the prepurchase stage, personal selling and sales promotion canfacilitate the purchase, and advertising can help reduce anxiety inthe postpurchase stage.