Psychodynamic Theories

Adult experiences are composed of a continuous flow

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Adult experiences are composed of a continuous flow from infantile sources ANAL EROTICISM The # of nerve endings and its central role during toilet training makes the anus an important erogenous zone Child ha intense wishes to defecate where and when he wants, maximize sensual please, mess, etc. Socialization restricts wishes Anal impulses (oral and phallic) continually flow into adult experience
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A good deal of adult functioning constructed to provide disguised forms of gratification or effective defenses, or complex combos of the two Messy people: Perpetually finding outlets for slightly diguised anal eroticism Tidy people: Dedicated to shoring up defenses against anal erotic impulses THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX The various elements of sexuality converge at age 5 or 6 in a genital organization The component pre-genital instincts subsumed under genital rule The aim of a child’s desires is intercourse with opposite-sex parent; same-sex parent becomes dangerous, feared rival The coloration of the Oedipal complex depends on earlier, pre-genital organizations If oral fixation, sexuality infused with dependency issues If anal fixation, images of domination and control THE RESOLUTION OF THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX Resolved through threat of castration anxiety Boy wants to eliminate rival by castrating him Fears his rival will do the same to him and thus gives up his Oedipal ambitions Superego (the conscious and the ego ideal) The internalization of parental values accompanies the resolution and holds infantile sexuality in check Freud had trouble accounting for the resolution of the Oedipus complex in girls THE AGGRESSIVE DRIVE Freud had regarded aggression and sadism as components of the sexual drive Dual instinct theory in 1920 He granted aggression equal status with sexuality as a source of the basic instinctual energy that drives the mental processes CRACKS IN THE TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL Freud began to see conflict as located inside the unconscious itself The significant boundaries-3 very different types of agencies Id: raw, unstructured impulsive energies Ego: collection of regulatory functions that keep the id’s impulses under control Superego: collection of moral value and self-critical attitudes, largely organized around internalized parental presences THE DEFENSE MECHANISMS Repression Reaction Formation Displacement
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Fixation Regression Projection Introjection Sublimation
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